The Secret to Happiness

The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula

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The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula Summary

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Neuroimaging of Happiness and Reward

The most consistent activation across several studies involving happiness induction is in the basal ganglia (ventral striate and putamen) (Phan et al., 2002). These include recognition of happy faces, pleasant pictures (including attractive faces), recall of happy memories, pleasant sexual arousal and competitive arousal of a successful nature (reviewed in Phan et al., 2002). In one study, transient happiness had no areas of significantly increased activity but was associated with significant and widespread reductions in cortical rCBF, especially in the right prefrontal and bilateral temporal-parietal regions (George et al., 1995). In their fMRI study, Breiter et al. (2001) found that the prospect of a monetary reward was associated with responses in SLEA and orbital gyrus. In a similar study, Knutson et al. (2001a,b) used fMRI and found that anticipation of increasing rewards elicited ventral striatal (nucleus accumbens) activation, along with increased self-reports of happiness. In...

Cortical Subcortical Factors in the Generation of Emotionality

Cases of pseudo-bulbar palsy, a condition in which patients have uncontrollable episodes of laughter or crying without an apparent triggering stimulus and without associated feelings of happiness or sadness (reviewed in Poeck, 1969 Rinn, 1984), have been interpreted as reflecting damage to pathways that arise in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex, descend to the brainstem, and inhibit motor output systems for laughter and crying. In that view, the lesions placed mostly in subcortical structures (basal ganglia and the internal capsule), would disinhibit or release the laughter

Meaning of parenthood

Australian researchers have begun to examine attitudes and beliefs about parenthood (as well as pregnancy and childbirth) among never-pregnant female adolescents and their male peers (Condon et al. 2000). This study found that many adolescents (young men in particular) held unrealistic and idealized beliefs about the likely consequences of pregnancy and parenthood. These stemmed from an over-estimation of potential positive aspects and an under-estimation of potential negatives. For example, participants considered that pregnancy would result in greater emotional closeness between partners and increased feelings of happiness. Similarly, parenthood was considered to be linked to closeness, happiness, marital harmony and well-adjusted children. However, participants were unaware of potential negative consequences such as altered lifestyles and difficulties in coping. Condon etal. (2000) suggest that many teenage pregnancies are a result of positive, idealized attitudes to pregnancy and...

Neuroimaging of States of Consciousness

In studies with 15O-H2O PET (Lou et al., 1999), nine practitioners of Yoga Nidra meditation (during which meditator becomes a neutral observer, the mind withdraws from wishing to act, it is not associated with emotions, nor the power of will) were observed. Tape- recorded instructions were similar to autogenic training (describing the weight of parts of body) and guided imagery (to experience joy and happiness in one part, imagine a nice landscape, perceive oneself abstractly as a golden egg). The different patterns of the brain activity, dependent on the content of instruction, were found, but the most commonly stimulated area during meditation was the hippocampus. The analysis of data revealed a bilateral group of regions with, sustained, 'tonic' activity orbital and dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulated, temporal, inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, pons and cerebellar vermis and hemispheres. The data were summarized as indicating

The Acute Affective Stress Response

Affective variables associated with the stress-hypertension relation include an array of acute emotional responses to environmental stressors. Although positive emotions like happiness or joy could serve as potential acute affective stress responses associated with hypertension, research in this area has typically focused on emotions that constitute negative affect, mainly anxiety and anger. In this regard, not all emotions have received equal attention.

System 2 The Supervision of Intuitive Judgments

The bat and ball problem elicits many errors, although it is not really difficult and certainly not ambiguous. A moral of this example is that people often make quick intuitive judgments to which they are not deeply committed. A related moral is that we should be suspicious of analyses that explain apparent errors by attributing to respondents a bizarre interpretation of the question. Consider someone who answers a question about happiness by reporting her satisfaction with her romantic life. The respondent is surely not committed to the absurdly narrow interpretation of happiness that her response seemingly implies. More likely, at the time of answering, she thinks that she is reporting happiness A judgment comes quickly to mind and is not obviously mistaken - end of story. Similarly, we propose that respondents who judge probability by representativeness do not seriously believe that the questions How likely is X to be a Y and How much does X resemble the stereotype of Y are...

The Eysenckian Superfactors in Relation to Performance and Social Behavior

Looking at the relationship between arousal level and extraversion-introversion from another (motivational) perspective, Eysenck hypothesized that stimuli of the same intensity evoke in extraverts and introverts different emotional states due to their differences in chronic arousal level. Just as there is an optimal level of arousal for performance, so there is an optimal level of arousal for subjective feelings of contentment, happiness or generally preferred hedonic tone (H. J. Eysenck, 1981, p. 18). Referring to Wundt's ( 1887) idea that stimuli of low intensity generate positive emotions whereas stimuli of high intensity produce negative emotions, Eysenck hypothesized that the relationship between level of sensory input and experienced hedonic tone depends on the individual's position on the extraversion-introversion dimension. This is illustrated in Figure 2.4, originally constructed by H. J. Eysenck (1963) at the time when the inhibition theory was still in force. As can be...

Emotional Development

At birth, the infant is capable of feeling distress, disgust, pain, and interest, although there is debate as to whether interest is an emotion. By 3 months of age, when the infant perceives and differentiates familiar from unfamiliar persons, he or she expresses happiness or joy. Smiling functions to maintain social contact. At approximately the same time, when the infant begins to self-initiate reaching and grasping, anger emerges. Anger is an emotion generated when an obstacle (barrier) prevents the child from obtaining a goal (interesting toy) and thus motivates the child to remove the obstacle. When the infant begins to move out into the environment on his or her own, usually at around 7 to 9 months of age, a new emotion emerges that serves to protect the infant from new and potentially dangerous persons and objects fear. This emotion is often reflected in the infant's newfound avoidance of strangers however, not all infants exhibit what is often called stranger anxiety.

Pragmatic Approach to Human Cloning

At bottom and in its implications, genetic science of the twentieth century affects the way we understand our capacity, meaning, and potential. Genetics is intimately tied to procreation, sexuality and reproduction, which are also the foci of our most intimate institutions, such as the family and church. When we make children and when we think of our inheritance, we are building our personal and communal understandings of loyalty, privacy, happiness, and growth. And, at the same time, human genetic information is rapidly becoming both a language of medical diagnosis and a commodity for licensure and ownership. Someone owns techniques for cloning mammals, including humans. It has become important to make social choices about the institutions that should be entrusted to reconstruct the family in an era of advancing reproductive technology, genetics, and cloning. Pragmatism is uniquely poised to address such questions but also to cope with the fog of current debates about cloning.18

Table 401 Pathological laughter and crying scale

Have these episodes occurred as a result of feelings of happiness _Rate the frequency with which the episodes have occurred as a result of happiness in the 7. Have these episodes occurred without feelings of happiness 9. Have these episodes occurred with any emotions other than happiness or sadness, such as nervousness, anger, fear, etc.

Disturbance of prosody

Recognition of facial emotion was determined by showing the patient 15 faces selected from the Ekman et al. (1972) series showing emotions of sadness (n 5), happiness (n 5), or anger (n 5). Patients were asked to identify the emotion expressed in the face by selecting from a multiple choice answer sheet showing schematic drawings of faces with happy, sad, or angry expressions (appropriate labels were written underneath).

Mehrabians PAD Pleasure ArousabilityDominance Temperamen t Model

The temperament dimension of pleasure-displeasure has been defined as a characteristic (typical for an individual) feeling state with such behavioral indicators as smiles and laughter, or, more generally, in terms of positive versus negative facial expressions especially during social interaction (Mehrabian,1980). One pole of this dimension is characterized by pain and un-happiness, and the opposite pole by ecstasy and happiness (Mehrabian, 1978b).

Adulthood And Aging Social Processes And Development

Close social partners provide emotionally meaningful interactions, and satisfaction with family members, including siblings, spouse, and children, increases with age. The sibling relationship represents one of the longest, more enduring relationships in life, and Victor Cicirelli's (1989) research reveals that people who report positive relationships with siblings, particularly their sisters, also report lower levels of depression. In addition, the marital tie is also important to overall well-being. Across the life span, marital satisfaction follows a curvilinear pattern high in the early years of marriage, decreasing slightly into middle adulthood, and then rising again toward the end of middle age. People whose marriages survived into old age report high levels of marital happiness and contentment. Although they reported that difficult times did occur, they attribute their marriage's longevity to strong levels of mutual commitment and friendship. Friendships comprise many different...

Nonverbal Communication

Paul Ekman has studied extensively facial expression and emotion. He began studying this topic in 1965 by asking a single question Are facial expression and emotion universal or culture specific He could not find a simple answer, and that led him to more questions. With Friesen, Ekman originated the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) in 1978. FACS is a reliable rating technique using photographs or a video for encoding and decoding basic emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. David Matsumoto has also developed an instrument to compare Japanese and American facial expressions.

Opponentprocess Theory Of Emotion

An everyday example of the phases of the affective dynamics in the case of a hedonically positive A State (which implies a negative B State) and the events that evoke them might be as follows News (stimulus) that a long-absent loved one will soon return evokes a positive hedonic state (A State) ofjoy or happiness (response). If the subject hears subsequent news that plans for the return of the loved one have been canceled, the positive A State will end abruptly and be replaced with a negative hedonic B State of sorrow or unhappiness, which will gradually decay until the neutral hedonic state extant prior to the positive news is reestablished. An example of the affective dynamics in the case of a hedonically negative A State might be one in which news (stimulus) that a loved one is seriously ill evokes a negative hedonic A State of sorrow or unhappiness (response). If subsequent news announces that the diagnosis was in error, the negative A State will end abruptly and be replaced with...

Psychotherapy and Values

Virtually all of the innovators who made significant contributions to psychotherapy, such as Freud, Rogers, Wolpe, Perls, and Beck, considered themselves to be discoverers of morally neutral, scientific knowledge, and viewed psychotherapy as an objective application of that knowledge to the goal of psychological health. By contrast, philosophical analysis helps us to see how values often establish, albeit covertly, the criteria for intervention influence patterns of therapeutic exploration and promote standards for client conduct. For example, a middle-aged man comes to a therapist announcing that he is considering leaving his wife for a much younger, recently married woman, and wants help making the decision. A therapist operating within the values of liberal, secular individualism would stress the happiness and contentment of the individual above all else and above all others, encouraging him to explore the issue in these self-directed (some might say selfish ) terms. One

Personality and Disturbance

Cause of emotional upsets, then thinking is the means by which disturbance is perpetuated People disturb themselves and perpetuate their own misery through habitual internal verbalizations of irrational beliefs. Regardless of the origins of an irrational belief, it is maintained only by use. Eliminate the irrational thought and the upset dissipates. Eliminate the irrational thinking and the problem will not recur. People tend to be happier and more effective when they reduce their natural human tendency toward irrational self-reindoctrination and begin to think and behave more rationally.

Hormonal Responses to Emotional Stress

Terms used to classify emotions generally include happiness, love, grief, guilt, and joy. However, most of these are impossible to define with sufficient operational rigor to permit scientific study, especially when animal models are used to unravel the neural and endocrine contributions to the emotional state and accompanying behavior. This is because these categories of emotion have not been constructed and refined from empirical observation. Rather, they are words taken from everyday language that describe either

Attribute Substitution

The heuristics and biases research program has focused primarily on representativeness and availability - two versatile attributes that are automatically computed and can serve as candidate answers to many different questions. It has also focused principally on thinking under uncertainty. However, the restriction to particular heuristics and to a specific context is largely arbitrary. Kahneman and Frederick (2002) argued that this process of attribute substitution is a general feature of heuristic judgment that whenever the aspect of the judgmental object that one intends to judge (the target attribute) is less readily assessed than a related property that yields a plausible answer (the heuristic attribute), individuals may unwittingly substitute the simpler assessment. For an example, consider the well-known study by Strack, Martin, and Schwarz (1988) in which college students answered a survey that included these two questions How happy are you with your life in general and How many...

Brain Imaging In Affective Neuroscience

Emotions are action-related feelings of positive or negative valence that are associated with approach or avoidance behaviors and neurophysiological changes. They are learned, innate, or a combination between the two and they may be transient states such as fear, anger, or happiness or they may be enduring moods such as depression. Basic knowledge about the neural underpinnings of emotion stems from several decades of animal research utilizing lesion, electrical stimulation, single cell recording, and pharmacological manipulation techniques. During recent years, functional neuroimaging has been applied to study normal and pathological emotions in humans. Together, these streams of research have contributed to the emergence of affective neuroscience (Davidson & Sutton, 1995).

Accessibility and Substitution

Not readily come to mind, but the search for it evokes other attributes that are conceptually and associatively related. For example, a question about overall happiness may retrieve the answer to a related question about satisfaction with a particular aspect of life upon which one is currently reflecting. Attributes that are not naturally assessed can become accessible if they have been recently evoked or primed (see, e.g., Bargh et al., 1986 Higgins & Brendl, 1995). The effect of temporary accessibility is illustrated by the romantic satisfaction heuristic for judging happiness. The mechanism of attribute substitution is the same, however, whether the heuristic attribute is chronically or temporarily accessible.

Pathological laughing and crying

Pathological laughing and crying is a phenomenon characterized by outbursts of emotion which are out of proportion to the underlying feelings of happiness and sadness (Wilson 1923). The clinical manifestations of pathological emotions may range from facial expressions of happiness or sadness to loud and uncontrolled outbursts of laughing or weeping. These uncontrolled outbursts of pseudoemotion are almost uniformly embarrassing to patients. Fears of developing uncontrollable emotional display can lead to social phobia and withdrawal. This phenomenon has been referred to by a variety of names including pathological emotions, emotional lability, emotional incontinence, and emotionalism as well as pseudobulbar affect (Lawson and Macleod 1969 Wolf et al. 1979 Ross and Stewart 1987 Hanger 1993). This condition has also been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, central pontine,...

Daydreaming

Daydreaming has been defined as a dream indulged in while awake, esp. one of happiness or gratified hope or ambition a reverie, castle in the air (Oxford English Dictionary) or a visionary fancy indulged in while awake (Webster's Dictionary). Obviously, daydreaming is not a very precisely defined or discrete entity. Daydreaming can be thought of as including a number of other terms in daily parlance, such as reverie, fantasy, imagination, playful thinking, wandering thoughts, and free association.

T4 The Details

T4, generically known as levothyroxine, can provide all of the thyroid hormone needs for your health and happiness. Life with too little T4 is uncomfortable at best, afflicting all parts of the body (see Chapter 3), while life without any T4 is impossible for more than a few months. This section discusses all the intimate details of this critical hormone pill, so you can take full advantage of its benefits.

Geriatric Psychology

Geriatric psychology must be concerned with the terrors of loneliness in old age, worry about illness or shelter, anxiety over finances, or the un-happiness that results when one generation infringes on the life of another. Geriatric psychology must deal with the fact that aging is not synonymous with disease that aging is not a state of ill health and that a disabling, lengthy sickness is not an inevitable part of growing old. It must, however, promote understanding of the mental and emotional problems of the later years of life because accumulated physical handicaps, plus a general deterioration in bodily functions, superimpose a heavier burden on whatever emotional traumas may have developed earlier within the individual.

Goldman Equation

Work remains important in psychology because the difference between sadness and happiness, good mood and bad mood, and even sanity and mental illness depends on the flow of charged salts (ions) through the protein channels puncturing neural membranes. For example, cocaine opens some Ca+2 channels a mutation in some K+ channels is thought to be associated with Schizophrenia and general anesthetics keep GABA-sensitive Cl- channels open longer.

The Good Life

Psychologists are increasingly drawn into the domain of ethics, a domain previously relegated to clergy and philosophers. Ethics has to do with the good life, asking questions such as What is the good How ought I act and Is happiness the ultimate goal in life Psychological research, in particular work done by clinical and social psychologists, is viewed by some as providing insight into these important questions. Psychological well-being, for example, is a collection of positive attributes that might be comparable to what philosophers refer to as virtues. Psychologists and philosophers alike agree that variables like good health, positive outlook, quality friends and social network, and a developed sense of self are all implicated in humans' ability to flourish. As with epistemology, there are those who believe that empirical evidence can provide answers to ethical questions. Although most thinkers agree that empirical findings can help people to more effectively realize their goals,...

Quality Of Life

Despite the popular and scientific interest in quality of life, there is little agreement on what is meant by the term quality of life. As Evans (1997) noted, quality of life has been used interchangeably with well-being, psychological well-being, subjective well-being, happiness, life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, and the good life. There is in fact a high degree of similarity among many of these measures, and statistical analyses with samples of the general population indicate that measures of life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, and quality of life are highly related to each other and form a single factor (Evans, 1997). Most researchers in the field believe that quality of life is a multidimensional concept, and there is fair agreement as to the majority of subdomains within the construct. There is some disagreement concerning the method by which measures in each of the subdomains should be aggregated to form an overall measure of quality of life.

Personality

Transcendental meditation appears to have a positive effect on personality functioning and well-being. For example, Nystul and Garde (1977) found that individuals practicing TM for a mean of 3 years had significantly more positive self-concepts on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale in terms of total positive, identity, self-satisfaction, personal self, and moral ethical self. TM has also been associated with increases in self-control, happiness, and self-actualization and decreases in psychopathology, such as psychosis, anxiety, and depression (Seeman, Nidick, & Banta, 1972 Hjelle, 1974 Nystul & Garde, 1977, 1979).

Biases

Whenever the heuristic attribute differs from the target attribute, the substitution of one for the other inevitably introduces systematic biases. In this treatment, we are mostly concerned with weighting biases, which arise when cues available to the judge are given either too much or too little weight. Criteria for determining optimal weights can be drawn from several sources. In the classic lens model, the optimal weights associated with different cues are the regression weights that optimize the prediction of an external criterion, such as physical distance or the grade point average that a college applicant will attain (Brunswik, 1943 Hammond, 1955). Our analysis of weighting biases applies to such cases, but it also extends to attributes for which no objective criterion is available, such as an individual's overall happiness or the probability that a particular patient will survive surgery. Normative standards for these attributes must be drawn from the constraints of ordinary...

Life ambitions

Research has begun to focus on children and young people's priorities for adulthood. Roberts and Sachdev's (1996) UK study examined young people's (12-19 years) social attitudes amongst the wealth of data generated were findings about ambitions. Fifty-nine per cent of their participants rated their most important life ambition (ranked first or second) as being happy, while 27 per cent wanted to have a family. Good health was important for 24 per cent of the sample, closely followed by having a good job (22 ) and being successful at work (20 ). Eighteen per cent wanted to be well off and 17 per cent to see the world. These findings were supported by an Observer YouGov poll, which found that almost 66 per cent of 11 to 21-year-olds rated happiness as their most important ambition. Contrary to popular belief, money was much less important to teenagers with only one in six rating it as their greatest priority in life (Summerskill 2002). A UK study by Barry (2001) examining 14 to...

Nirvana

The history of Nirvana Scetl Company goes hack to the end of the l9BOs. when the founder was working ai Amsterdam's legendary I'ositronics growshop. The knowledge and inspiration he received there moved him to think about starting his own seed company. Years were spent traveling, seeking out and collecting seeds from the finest strains. More years went into experimentation, growing, cross breeding and developing the new strains from among which Nirvana select ed the best to become their range of high quality hybrid seeds. After applying and expanding his experience in a numlicr of Amsterdam's liest known grow shops, he opened Nirvana in 1995. An innovative busi ncss concept that developed into a full smart shop Nirvana has a unique and original range if self-dcvel oped hemp products, that includc hemp vinegar. hcm ice tea. and hemp liqueur as well as hemp wine and beer, located ill the heart of the picturesque I'ijp. the Nirvana shop lives up to...

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