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Maps: Smoking prevalence

WHO Global NCD InfoBase [online database]. Geneva, WHO


Cardiovascular risks of smoking Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Fowkes FG. Smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study. European heart journal, 1999, 20:344-353.

Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998, 316:1043-1047.

Smoking and stroke: a causative role. Heavy smokers with hypertension benefit most from stopping. British medical journal, 1998, 317:962-963 (editorial).

Cole CW, Hill GB, Farzad E, Bouchard A, Moher D, Rody K, Shea B. Cigarette smoking and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Surgery, 1993, 114(4):753-756; discussion, 756-757.

Lederle FA, Johnson GR, Wilson SE et al. Prevalence and associations of abdominal aortic aneurysm detected through screening. Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Annals of internal medicine, 1997, 126(6):441-449.

Smoking and urology: male fertility and sexuality dysfunctions. Cigarettes: what the warning label doesn't tell you: the first comprehensive guide to the health consequences of smoking. New York. The American Council on Science and Health, 1996, Chapter 11:95-100.

Smoking harms men. Sydney Morning Herald, 24 March 1997, 3 (quoting Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine).

Cardiovascular risks of passive smoking

Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Masoura C, Toutouzas P, Stefanadis C. Effect of exposure to secondhand smoke on markers of inflammation: the ATTICA study. American journal of medicine, 2004, 116(3):145-150.

Bonita R, Duncan J, Truelsen T, Jackson RT, Beaglehole R. Passive smoking as well as active smoking increases the risk of stroke. Tobacco control, 1999, 8:156-161.

International Consultation on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and Child Health, 11-14 January 1999. Geneva, WHO, 1999 (WH0/NCD/TFI//99.10).

Smokers don't know the risks of heart attack

Ayanian JZ, Cleary PD. Perceived risks of heart disease and cancer among cigarette smokers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 281:1019-1021.

Wow: USA

National Cancer Institute. Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the report of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Bethesda, MD, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1999 (Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph no. 10; NIH Pub. No. 99-4645).

Wow: China

Smoking and health in China. 1996 National Prevalence Survey of Smoking Pattern. Beijing, China Science and Technology Press, undated, 89.


English JP, Willius FA, Berkson J. Tobacco and coronary disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1940, 115:1327-1329.

Smoking study reveals grim disease risks. Australian

Associated Press, 20 May 2002



Bonita R, Duncan J, Truelsen T, Jackson RT, Beaglehole R. Passive smoking as well as active smoking increases the risk of acute stroke. Tobacco control, 1999, 8:156-160.

Lehr HA, Weyrich AS, Saetzle RK et al. Vitamin C blocks inflammatory platelet-activating factor mimetics created by cigarette smoking. Journal of clinical investigation, 1997, 99(10):2358-2364.

Davis JW, Shelton L, Watanabe IS, Arnold J. Passive smoking affects endothelium and platelets. Archives of internal medicine, 1989, 149(2):386-389.

McBride PE. The health consequences of smoking: cardivascular disease. Medical clinics of North America, 1992, 76:333-353.

Aronow W. Effect of passive smoking on angina pectoris. New England journal of medicine, 1978, 299:21-24.

Humphries SE, Talmud PJ, Hawe E, Bolla M, Day INM, Miller GJ. Apolipoprotein E4 and coronary heart disease in middle-aged men who smoke: a prospective study. Lancet, 2001, 358:115—119. Gene linked to heart disease risk. BBC online, 13 July 2001 http://www.bbc.co.uk

Prescott E, Scharling H, Osler M, Schnohr P. Importance of light smoking and inhalation habits on risk of myocardial infarction and all cause mortality. A 22 year follow up of 12 149 men and women in The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 2002, 56:702—706 http://jech.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/ 56/9/702

Willett WC, Green A, Stampfer MJ et al. Relative and absolute excess risks of coronary heart disease among women who smoke cigarettes. New England journal of medicine, 1987, 317:1303-1309.

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