Women a special case

The Big Heart Disease Lie

Cardiovascular Disease Causes and Treatment

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Smoking

Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998, 316:1043-1047.

No time to walk

Clark J. News roundup: Women too busy to exercise. British medical journal, 2003, 326:467.

Walking reduces coronary heart disease

Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women. Is "no pain, no gain" passé? Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001, 285:1447-1454.

Hormone replacement therapy

Trevisan MM. Hormone replacement therapy. Global Symposium on Cardiovascular Prevention, Marbella, Spain, 11-13 April 2003.

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WHO. The World Health Report 2003: Shaping the future. Geneva, WHO, 2003: Annex Table 2.

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Kmietowicz Z. News roundup: Women fail to recognise risk of heart disease. British medical journal, 2003, 326:355.

Ulmer H, Kelleher C, Diem G, Concin H. Why Eve is not Adam: prospective follow-up in 149650 women and men of cholesterol and other risk factors related to cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Journal of women's health (Larchmount), 2004, 13(1):41—53.

Lerner DJ, Kannel WB. Patterns of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the sexes: a 26-year follow-up of the Framingham population. American heart journal, 1986, 111:383-390.

McKinlay JB. Some contributions from the social system to gender inequalities in heart disease. Journal of health and social behaviour, 1996, 37:1-26.

Giles WH, Anda RF, Casper ML, Escobedo LG, Taylor HA. Race and sex differences in rates of invasive cardiac procedures in US hospitals: data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Archives of internal medicine, 1995, 155:318-324.

Dustan HP. Coronary artery disease in women. Canadian journal of cardiology, 1990, 6(Suppl B):19B-21B.

Lehmann JB, Wehner PS, Lehmann CU, Savory LM. Gender bias in the evaluation of chest pain in the emergency department. American journal of cardiology, 1996, 77:641-644.

Roquer J, Campello AR, Gomis M. Sex differences in first-ever acute stroke. Stroke, 2003, 34(7):1581-1585.

Adams KF Jr, Sueta CA, Gheorghiade M, O'Connor CM, Schwartz TA, Koch GG, Uretsky B, Swedberg K, McKenna W, Soler-Soler J, Califf RM. Gender differences in survival in advanced heart failure. Insights from the FIRST study. Circulation, 1999, 99(14):1816-1821.

Mosca L et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women. Circulation, 2004, 109:672-693.

PART 3 THE BURDEN

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