World Data Table

The Big Heart Disease Lie

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Thousands 2002

Heart disease

Stroke

Rheumatic heart disease

Number of deaths 2002

Disability

DALYS lost per 1000 population

DALYS lost per 1000 population 2003 or latest available data

Mortality

Number of deaths 2002

Saint Lucia

148

6

71

11

120

4

Saint Vincent and Grenadines

119

9

103

10

88

2

Samoa

176

14

117

14

128

3

San Marino

27

5

40

3

26

1

Sao Tome and Principe

157

7

81

10

107

2

Saudi Arabia

23 520

17

16 438

4

3 818

126

Senegal

9 855

10

3 838

12

4 154

355

Serbia and Montenegro

10 535

12

23 610

12

21 756

238

Seychelles

80

7

54

2

15

1

Sierra Leone

4 764

13

2 813

15

3 035

216

Singapore

4 183

7

3 946

3

1 716

39

Slovakia

5 398

12

14 609

5

4 445

131

Slovenia

1 986

6

2 803

6

2 003

87

Solomon Islands

463

12

213

13

220

6

Somalia

9 480

19

6 818

13

4 426

333

South Africa

44 759

9

27 013

11

30 306

792

Spain

40 977

4

45 018

3

34 880

1 738

Sri Lanka

18 910

8

16 297

7

13 348

175

Sudan

32 878

15

28 458

10

16 532

800

Suriname

432

13

397

12

362

4

Swaziland

1 069

8

529

8

499

13

Sweden

8 867

5

20 122

3

9 984

143

Switzerland

7 171

4

10 746

2

4 508

112

Syrian Arab Republic

17 381

13

11 168

11

7 675

1 715

Tajikistan

6 195

23

11 447

7

3 048

419

Tanzania, United Republic of

36 276

10

14 720

12

16 115

439

Thailand

62 193

6

28 425

5

24 810

456

Timor-Leste

739

18

635

10

315

49

Togo

4 801

10

2 474

12

2 675

175

Tonga

103

10

70

12

79

2

Trinidad and Tobago

1 298

15

2 156

10

1 253

23

Tunisia

9 728

15

12 956

6

4 798

298

Turkey

70 318

16

102 552

13

62 782

1 584

Turkmenistan

4 794

34

11 671

7

2 182

221

Tuvalu

10

18

11

20

11

0

Uganda

25 004

10

10 163

11

11 043

288

Ukraine

48 902

28

335 610

13

126 117

3 085

United Arab Emirates

2 937

17

2 235

4

363

16

United Kingdom

59 068

7

120 530

4

59 322

1 712

United States of America

291 038

8

514 450

4

163 768

3 479

Uruguay

3 391

6

3 980

7

3 773

32

Uzbekistan

25 705

24

55 693

12

23 436

1 558

Vanuatu

207

13

120

13

122

3

Venezuela

25 226

10

17 967

5

8 720

208

Viet Nam

80 278

10

66 179

8

58 308

4 210

Yemen

19 315

22

16 217

9

6 464

743

Zambia

10 698

8

4 153

9

4 604

135

Zimbabwe

12 835

8

5 752

10

6 264

158

Percentage of people 18 years and above who smoke

2003 or latest available data

Diabetes

Percentage of people aged 20 years and above with diabetes 2000

Research

Number of publications on cardiovascular disease 1991-2001

Policies and legislation

Legal status of smoking in government buildings 2004 or latest available data

Country

men

women

34.6%

5.0%

6.2%

-

restricted

Saint Lucia

34.6%

5.6%

7.3%

-

unknown

Saint Vincent and Grenadines

67.4%

28.8%

6.1%

-

banned

Samoa

-

-

9.2%

-

unknown

San Marino

-

-

0.9%

-

not regulated

Sao Tome and Principe

29.1%

1.2%

9.3%

51

banned

Saudi Arabia

21.2%

1.5%

3.4%

3

not regulated

Senegal

55.5%

51.8%

4.2%

21

not regulated

Serbia ft Montenegro

32.5%

15.0%

14.6%

-

unknown

Seychelles

-

-

3.3%

-

unknown

Sierra Leone

23.7%

3.2%

11.4%

76

restricted

Singapore

42.3%

28.0%

3.9%

25

banned

Slovakia

32.7%

20.8%

4.3%

34

restricted

Slovenia

-

-

6.4%

-

restricted

Solomon Islands

-

-

2.7%

-

unknown

Somalia

43.4%

13.9%

3.4%

77

restricted

South Africa

43.9%

31.2%

8.7%

689

restricted

Spain

38.7%

3.1%

5.4%

6

banned

Sri Lanka

27.7%

2.7%

2.9%

-

restricted

Sudan

-

-

3.8%

-

not regulated

Suriname

19.6%

4.9%

2.9%

-

not regulated

Swaziland

21.3%

24.9%

4.3%

654

banned

Sweden

37.6%

28.3%

3.9%

440

restricted

Switzerland

44.0%

16.7%

8.2%

-

banned

Syrian Arab Republic

-

-

3.1%

-

not regulated

Tajikistan

48.9%

7.2%

1.3%

-

not regulated

Tanzania, United Republic of

32.2%

2.7%

3.8%

59

restricted

Thailand

-

-

-

-

unknown

Timor-Leste

-

-

3.1%

2

not regulated

Togo

62.1%

14.2%

6.3%

-

banned

Tonga

-

-

7.3%

5

not regulated

Trinidad and Tobago

52.9%

2.5%

2.9%

8

restricted

Tunisia

51.1%

18.5%

7.3%

578

banned

Turkey

-

-

3.2%

-

banned

Turkmenistan

-

-

6.3%

-

banned

Tuvalu

33.4%

7.1%

1.1%

2

restricted

Uganda

55.5%

14.7%

4.4%

19

restricted

Ukraine

27.6%

4.0%

20.5%

8

restricted

United Arab Emirates

34.6%

34.4%

3.9%

2 667

not regulated

United Kingdom

27.8%

22.3%

8.8%

12 502

restricted

United States of America

39.4%

30.8%

6.8%

2

restricted

Uruguay

28.7%

1.4%

3.2%

1

not regulated

Uzbekistan

47.9%

4.8%

6.9%

-

restricted

Vanuatu

51.9%

20.5%

4.3%

-

unknown

Venezuela

53.2%

3.0%

1.8%

-

banned

Viet Nam

60.0%

29.0%

4.4%

-

unknown

Yemen

21.4%

8.8%

1.6%

-

restricted

Zambia

32.2%

4.6%

2.0%

2

unknown

Zimbabwe

Glossary of terms used in this publication

ACE inhibitors: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. Drugs used to treat high blood pressure, and to aid healing after a heart attack.

Angina (angina pectoris): pain or discomfort in the chest that occurs when part of the heart does not receive enough blood. Typically, it is precipitated by effort and relieved by rest.

Angioplasty: a non-invasive surgical procedure used to open up blockages in blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that feed the heart. Often performed with either a balloon or a wire mesh (stent).

Anticoagulant: medication that delays the clotting (coagulation) of blood.

Arrhythmia: a change in the regular beat or rhythm of the heart. The heart may seem to skip a beat, or beat irregularly, or beat very fast or very slowly.

Arteriosclerosis: a general term for the hardening of the arteries.

Asymptomatic: without symptoms. This term may apply either to healthy persons or to persons with preclinical (prior to clinical diagnosis) disease in whom symptoms are not yet apparent.

Atherosclerosis: one form of arteriosclerosis, where the hardening and narrowing of the arteries is caused by the slow build-up of fatty deposits on the inside lining.

Atrial fibrillation: a common heart rhythm disorder in which the two small upper chambers of the heart (the atria) quiver instead of beating effectively. This quivering makes the heart less efficient, allows blood to pool and form clots, and predisposes to stroke.

Blood pressure: the force of the blood pushing against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is given as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure while the heart is contracting) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is resting between contractions).

Body mass index (BMI): a measure of weight in relation to height. It is calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of height (in metres). A BMI of less than 25 is considered normal, 25—30 is overweight, and greater than 30 defines obesity.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD): any disease of the heart or blood vessels, including stroke and high blood pressure.

Carotid stenosis: narrowing of the carotid arteries, the main arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain.

Cerebrovascular disease: also called a stroke or the brain equivalent of a heart attack. A condition in which a blood vessel in the brain bursts or is clogged by a blood clot, leading to inadequate blood supply to the brain and death of brain cells.

Cholesterol: a waxy substance that circulates in the bloodstream.

Cholesterol plaques: deposits of fat, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and other substances that build up on the inner lining of an artery.

Congestive heart failure: a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs.

Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG): A type of heart surgery that re-routes blood around clogged arteries — or "bypasses" them — to improve the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.

Coronary heart disease: heart disease in which the coronary arteries are narrowed and the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart therefore decreased. Also called coronary artery disease or ischaemic heart disease. It includes heart attack and angina.

Developing country, high mortality: a developing country with high child mortality and high or very high adult mortality.

Developing country, low mortality: a developing country with low child mortality and low adult mortality.

Diabetes mellitus: a chronic disease due to either insulin deficiency or resistance to insulin action or both, and associated with hyperglycaemia (elevated blood glucose levels).

Direct costs: costs associated with an illness that can be attributed to a medical service, procedure, medication, etc., such as X-ray examination, pharmaceutical drugs (for example, insulin), surgery, or a clinic visit.

Disability adjusted life years (DALYs): a measure of overall burden of a disease by combining the years of potential life lost due to premature death and the years of productive life lost due to the disability. One DALY is one lost year of healthy life.

Epidemic: the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behaviour, or other health-related events clearly in excess of what would normally be expected.

Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol: the so-called "good cholesterol". HDL helps remove cholesterol from the blood vessels. High levels of blood HDL protect against heart disease.

Heart attack (myocardial infarction): death of part of the heart muscle as a result of a coronary artery becoming completely blocked, usually by a blood clot (thrombus), resulting in lack of blood flow to the heart muscle and therefore loss of needed oxygen.

Heart failure: see Congestive heart failure.

High blood pressure: a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or greater or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or greater.

Homocysteine: an amino acid produced by the body. Elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood can damage blood vessels and disrupt normal blood clotting, and possibly increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Indirect costs: costs associated with an illness that occur because an individual or family members cannot work at their usual jobs, because of premature death, sickness, or disability.

Ischaemic heart disease: see Coronary heart disease.

LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol: the so-called "bad cholesterol". High levels of LDL put people at risk of heart attack.

Lipid: fat or fat-like substance, such as cholesterol, present in blood and body tissues.

MET: metabolic equivalent; a measure of energy expenditure. One MET/min is the amount of energy expended while sitting quietly at rest for one minute.

Obesity: a condition characterized by excessive body fat. Usually defined as a body mass index greater than 30.

Peripheral vascular disease: disease of certain blood vessels outside the heart or disease of the lymph vessels, for example the arteries supplying the limbs, which leads to inadequate blood supply and claudication (intermittent pain on exercise such as walking).

Physical activity: bodily movement that substantially increases energy expenditure.

Premature death: death that occurs at an age earlier than the average life expectancy for the population. Primary prevention: a strategy that helps to prevent the onset of a disease or condition in people who are at risk but do not already have the disease or condition. Examples are promotion of exercise in the general population, smoking prevention in young people, and also the treatment and control of high blood pressure as a strategy for primary prevention of stroke.

Rheumatic heart disease: damage to the heart valves and other heart structures from inflammation and scarring caused by rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever begins with a sore throat due to streptococcal infection.

Secondary prevention: a strategy that helps to prevent recurrent disease or complications in people who already have the disease. For example, the use of a daily dose of aspirin by heart attack survivors is an effective strategy for preventing a second heart attack.

Sedentary: denotes a person who is relatively inactive and has a lifestyle characterized by a lot of sitting.

Stent: a device used to support tissues while healing takes place. A stent can keep "tube-shaped" structures, such as blood vessels, open after a surgical procedure. An intraluminal coronary artery stent is a small, self-expanding, stainless steel mesh tube, which is placed within a coronary artery to keep the vessel open.

Stroke: the brain equivalent of a heart attack. A condition in which a blood vessel in the brain bursts (haemorrhagic stroke) or is clogged (embolic or ischaemic stroke) by a blood clot. This leads to inadequate blood supply to the brain and death of the brain cells, and usually results in temporary or permanent neurological deficits.

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA): small stroke-like event, which resolves in a day or less. It is often a warning sign of an impending stroke.

Triglyceride: the chemical form in which most fat exists in food and in the body.

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