Unlock Your Hip Flexors

Unlock Your Hip Flexors

Unlock Your Hip Flexors is a program that gives the user a practical, easy-to-follow, natural method of releasing tight hip Flexors. Its aim is to help the user get the desired result within 60 days at 10-15 minutes per day. Naturally, the hip flexors are not meant to be tight. When they become tight, the user needs a way to make them loosen up. Unlock Your Hip Flexor has been programmed in such a way that it will help the user in doing just that. The plan was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, it will take the user close to 60 days to solve this problem and it is hard; yet the easiest as well the only that have been known to successfully help in the loosening of tightened hip flexors. The methods employed in this program are natural ones that have been proven by many specials. The system comes with bonus E-books Unlock Your Tight Hamstrings (The Key To A Healthy Back And Perfect Posture) and The 7-Day Anti-Inflammatory Diet (Automatically Heal Your Body With The Right Foods). There various exercises that can be done at home are recorded in a video format and are so easy that you will only get a difficult one after you have agreed to proceed to the next stage. More here...

Unlock Your Hip Flexors Summary


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Contents: Ebooks, Training Program
Author: Mike Westerdal
Official Website: www.unlockmyhips.com
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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Pelvic Avulsion Injuries

The bony attachments of the sartorius anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) , rectus femoris (anterior inferior iliac spine), and the hamstrings (ischial tuberosity) can be individually avulsed by sudden overloading of the respective muscles (acute muscular contraction against a fixed resistance). The history is typically a sudden onset of extreme pain following sudden, forceful acceleration or deceleration. Localized pain and swelling at the site of injury and increased discomfort with passive stretching and muscle contraction against resistance suggest the diagnosis. Plain radiographs confirm the injury (Fig. 3.3). Subtleties may make the diagnosis obscure, and MRI may be a more sensitive and accurate way to establish the diagnosis. The ham-

Muscle Strain Quadriceps Hamstring

Common mechanisms of injury to the thigh include excessive tensile forces (strain) or high-velocity compressive forces (contusions, hematoma). There can be significant overload to the quadriceps when there is forceful contraction of the knee extensor muscles against resistance. This situation commonly occurs when landing from a jump, a changing stride misstep, or catching the foot while attempting to kick a ball. The most common injury is to the rectus femoris muscle, which commonly occurs at the distal muscle-tendon unit. The rectus femoris is the most central and superficial of the quadriceps muscles of the anterior thigh, and the distal portion is the leading edge in the flexed knee. Injury to the quadriceps muscles may show a visibly swollen, tender area at the site of the muscle tear. Pain is felt on active contraction and passive stretching. Isolation of this muscle is best done in the prone position with a mild passive stretch to flexion. In the prone position, Ely's test is...

Defining Femoral Shaft Fractures

The load transferred to bone during weight bearing 26 . Functioning muscles with broad attachments to bone normally prevent areas of stress concentration, whereas fatigued muscles do not perform in this manner. Muscle fatigue secondary to physical activity may alter gait and the distribution of stress along weight-bearing bones. This process results in excess concentration of force transmitted to focal sites on the underlying bone, where stress fractures can develop 27 . The location of stress concentration within the femur predisposes certain areas to fracture. The tension side of the femoral neck is considered a high-risk area for progression to a complete fracture. The femoral shaft, on the other hand, is a low-risk area for the development of stress fractures but is susceptible to repetitive stresses 28 . Repetitive forces on the femoral shaft may result in a stress fracture on the medial (compression side) of the femur at the junction of the proximal and middle third of the...

Familial Spastic Paraplegias

Information about the genetic basis for these disorders is mushrooming. It has been established that uncomplicated autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked FSPs are heterogeneous disorders. Because families with strong similarities in phenotype are linked to different genetic loci, there may be various points of disturbance in a common biochemical pathway that leads to degeneration of the most distal portions of the longest ascending and descending central nervous system axons, particularly the corticospinal tracts from the motor cortex to the legs, the fasciculus gracilis fibers, and the spinocerebellar fibers (,,Table,36-4 ). Genetic penetrance is age dependent and nearly complete. 17 Clinical Features and Associated Disorders. The patient generally presents with leg stiffness, weakness in the hip flexors, and impaired foot dorsiflexion in the second through fourth decades, although symptoms may be apparent in infancy or not until late...

Specific Disorders Of The Lumbosacral Plexus

Careful electrophysiological examination will nearly always demonstrate involvement outside of the femoral and lumbar plexus region, with abnormalities in sensory and motor branches of peroneal and tibial nerves, frequently accompanied by abnormalities in the paraspinal muscles. The quadriceps, iliopsoas, adductors, and glutei are often most prominently affected. The presence of fibrillation potentials in the paraspinal muscles certainly brings into the question the exact localization of the disorder despite this, for simplicity, most electromyographers continue to think of diabetic amyotrophy as a form of plexopathy. The electrodiagnostic evaluation is more helpful than physical examination for demonstrating abnormalities outside of a single myotome or nerve territory, and the widespread nature of this lesion often differentiates it from structural lesions involving the nerve roots or plexus. In cases where uncertainty remains, appropriate imaging studies are helpful in...

HIV1Related Myopathies

Clinical Features and Associated Disorders. Muscle weakness is the predominant sign and symptom. , 162 Patients present with slowly progressive symmetrical and predominantly proximal weakness of the upper and lower limbs. Patients have difficulty arising from a chair or climbing stairs. Myalgia is present in 25 to 50 percent of affected patients. Neurological examinations reveal symmetrical weakness of proximal muscle groups with prominent involvement of neck and hip flexors. HIV-1-associated polymyositis can occur at any stage of HIV-1 infection. Presentation is similar to sporadic polymyositis with proximal muscle weakness, myalgias, and elevated CK.

Electrodiagnosis Lumbosacral Plexopathies

EMG is one of the most important electrodiagnostic tests in the evaluation of lumbosacral plexopathy. As in the upper extremity, a plexus lesion will produce abnormalities in multiple nerve and root territories, largely sparing related paraspinal muscles. Therefore, muscles from different myotomes supplied by different peripheral nerves need to be evaluated, and the sampling should include those innervated by both the lumbar and sacral plexus. When evaluating the lumbar plexus it is useful to examine muscles innervated by the femoral nerve and obturator nerves, as well as the iliopsoas and the high lumbar paraspinal muscles (Table 1). Lumbar plexus lesions are differentiated from femoral neuropathy by the presence of EMG abnormalities in the obturator-innervated adductor longus muscle, in addition to the quadriceps. The finding of abnormalities restricted to the iliopsoas and quadriceps is considered evidence of a femoral neuropathy, because the nerves innervating these muscles run in...

Basic Mup Parameters 71 Duration

The duration of the motor unit is perhaps its most important characteristic (Fig. 11). The duration reflects how dispersed the motor unit is in time and space and is the least affected by proximity of the needle electrode to the motor unit being recorded. Generally, short-duration motor units are commonly observed in myopathic conditions, whereas long-duration motor units are observed in neurogenic disorders. In any muscle, motor unit size will vary within a distribution of durations however, some muscles (e.g., those of the quadriceps or triceps) have longer-duration units than those of others (e.g., iliopsoas and biceps). Duration of the MUP is also age-dependent, because larger motor units are observed more prominently in older people, due to the normal drop out of motor neurons in the spinal cord with advancing age. Although normal values for this parameter have been painstakingly obtained for

Specific Disorders Of The Brachial Plexus

Lumbosacral Plexus Schematic

The lumbosacral plexus may best be considered as two distinct plexuses, the lumbar and the sacral (Fig. 2). The lumbar plexus is derived from L1-L4 nerve roots and gives rise to two major nerves the femoral nerve (L2-L4) that innervates the quadriceps muscle and the skin of the anterior thigh and medial lower leg, and the obturator nerve (L2-L4) innervating the thigh adductor muscles and the skin of the medial thigh. Branches to the iliopsoas muscle arise directly from the plexus, traveling alongside the femoral nerve. The lumbar plexus also gives rise to several sensory nerves the iliohypogastric (L1) supplying the anterior and lateral lower abdominal wall, the ilioinguinal (L1) to the upper medial thigh and root of the penis or labium majus, the genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2) to the upper anterior thigh and scrotum, and the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (L2-L3) to the lateral thigh.

Pyridoxine Vitamin B6

Figure 40-8 (Figure Not Available) Vitamin E deficiency myelopathy. Cross section of cervical spinal cord. Ihe triple arrowheads denote light-staining symmetrical areas of degeneration involving the posterior columns. Ihe two single arrowheads indicate involvement of the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts. In the posterior columns, the fasciculus cuneatus is affected to a greater extent than the gracilis. Microscopically, numerous swollen and dystrophic axons (spheroids) and astrocytosis are present in the posterior columns, and nerve cell loss is seen in the dorsal root ganglia (luxol-fast blue-periodic acid-SchFrom Rosenblum JL, Keating JP, Prensky AL, Nelson JS A progressive neurologic syndrome in children with chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med 1981 304 506.)

Principles Of Diagnosis

The clinical presentation can be variable. Swelling of the thigh may or may not be present. Muscle bulk, tone, and strength are usually normal. The point of maximal tenderness is more difficult to localize in the femur than in other common areas of stress fractures such as the tibia and metatarsals, which are more subcutaneous. However, palpation of the groin over the hip joint can reproduce a patient's symptoms related to stress fractures of the femoral neck 32 . Pain at the extremes of passive range of motion of the hip is another sign of a proximal femur fracture 15 . Patients may ambulate with an antalgic gait, but heel strike and percussion tests correlate poorly with femoral neck fatigue fractures 15 . An active straight leg raise and logrolling of the thigh may accentuate pain 13 . In femoral shaft stress fractures, a torsional or bending stress may be helpful in accentuating the pain associated with the fractures. In the distal femur, the supracondylar and condylar area of the...

Lower Motor Neuron Pool

The lumbosacral plexus is derived from the anterior primary rami of the twelfth thoracic through the fourth sacral levels and is contained within the psoas major muscle. Although many more roots contribute to the lumbosacral plexus, it is somewhat simpler than the brachial plexus. Two major nerves, the femoral nerve and the sciatic nerve, are formed from the plexus (see Fig 15-7 ).

Important Findings In The Pediatric Emg Laboratory

In cases of possible myopathy or muscular dystrophy, it is important to examine proximal muscles and any other muscles that are weak. Iliopsoas should be studied whenever possible in infants and younger children, it is crucial to locate the femoral pulse and ensure that the needle is not placed in the femoral artery. If the patient is so agitated that this cannot be guaranteed, it is advisable to defer study of that muscle. Other proximal muscles in the upper and lower extremities should also be studied.

Structured And Semistructured Clinical Interviews

W., Sartorius, N., Andreoli, A., Berger, P., Buchheim, P., Channabasavanna, S. M., Coid, B., Dahl, A., Diekstra, R. F. W., Ferguson, B., Jacobsberg, L. B., Mombour, W., Pull, C., Ono, Y., & Reiger, D. A. (1994). The International Personality Disorder Examination. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 215224.

Femoral Neuropathy 61 Anatomy

The femoral nerve is derived from the lumbar plexus, originating from the posterior divisions of the L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots. The nerve provides motor branches to the psoas and iliacus muscles before traveling underneath the inguinal ligament. Subsequently, the nerve divides into motor and sensory branches. Motor branches supply the sartorius, pectineus, and the four heads of the quadriceps muscles. Sensory branches supply sensation to the medial thigh (medial cutaneous nerve of the thigh), anterior thigh (intermediate cutaneous nerve of the thigh), and medial calf (saphenous nerve). A. Femoral motor study stimulating at the below inguinal ligament site recording from the rectus femoris. Comparison with the asymptomatic side is necessary. 1. Iliopsoas and at least two quadriceps muscles (e.g., vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) 2. At least one obturator-innervated muscle (e.g., adductor longus)

Initial Studies Of Naf Focus On Feasibility

In order for NAF to be useful as a screening tool, it is essential to collect a sample in the vast majority of women. As a result, increasing the success rate continued to be an important area of investigation for the next 30 years. Early studies indicated that the ease of collecting NAF was related to the ethnicity of the individual, with NAF being more difficult to collect from Asians than African Americans or Caucasians (Petrakis et al., 1975). This was presumed to be due to the physiology of the breast, a modified ceruminous gland and is probably related to the secretory pattern in the breast and other ceruminous glands, which provide less secretions in most Asians (Petrakis, 1971) and American Indians (Petrakis, 1969) who are thought to have come from Asia than in Caucasians and African Americans. Other variables (Petrakis et al., 1975) found linked to success in NAF collection included age (late premenopause had the highest yield) and menopausal status (premenopausal subjects...

Structured Clinical Interview For Diagnosis

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders, IV. Washington, DC Author. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837-844. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. W., Croughan, J., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health diagnostic interview schedule Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381-389. Robins, L. N., Wing, J., Wittchen, H. U., Helzer, J. E., Babor, T. F., Burke, J., Farmer, A., Jablenski, A., Pickens, R., Regier, D. A., Sartorius, N., & Towle, L. H. (1988). The composite international diagnostic interview An epidemiologic instrument suitable for use conjunction with different diagnostic systems and different cultures. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 10691077.

Lower Extremity Composite Free Flaps

Other procedures involve a free lateral thigh or anterolateral thigh flap with fascia lata sheet (Fig. 23.2).1,34,35 The fascia lata in these flaps is rolled into a cylinder to replace the missing tendon segment. Advantages include a long and relatively large vascular pedicle (the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery), a large skin paddle of up to 800 cm2, a donor site that can be closed directly if the defect is less than approximately 8 cm, ample subcutaneous fat to permit tendon gliding, and the possibility of including the rectus femoris or vastus lateralis muscle.29 Inclusion of these muscles may be difficult, however splitting the vastus lateralis longitudinally may jeopardize the blood supply to part of the muscle, and in the case of the rectus femoris, the takeoff of its pedicle is very close to the site of anastomosis on the lateral femoral circumflex. Other disadvantages of the thigh flaps are the anatomic variation and small size of many of the...

Discriminative Touch Vibration and Conscious Sense of Joint Muscle Movement

Ipsilateral funiculus gracilis or cuneatus to synapse in the nucleus gracilis or cuneatus within the medulla. As these fibers travel in the dorsal columns they are topographically localized between the fibers transmitting vibration and those transmitting discriminative touch in the intermediate region of the dorsal columns. The second-order neurons are located within the gracilis and cuneatus nuclei. The third-order neurons are located in the VPL nucleus of the thalamus following the course of the dorsal column nuclei to the somatosensory cortex, as previously mentioned. The sensory cortex gets very precise information on the position and movements of the joints. somatosensory cortex. Like proprioceptive fibers, the first-order neurons are in the DRG, second-order neurons in the cuneatus and gracilis nuclei, and third-order neurons in the VPL nucleus of the thalamus. With regard to the cortical representation of vibratory sensation, many years ago Holmes stated that the appreciation...

Preoperative Assessment

The patient is assessed, a full history is collected, clinical examination is carried out, and fitness for anesthesia and the neurovascular status of the limb are assessed, paying particular attention to the sural nerve. The diagnosis of chronic rupture may be difficult and require further imaging. Written informed consent is taken. The patient should be aware of wound problems, neurovascu-lar damage, altered sensation around the gracilis harvest site, calf wasting, weakness of ankle flexion, and the risk of failure of surgery and of anesthesia.

Operative Technique

If the gap produced is greater than 6 cm despite maximal plantarflexion of the ankle and traction on the Achilles tendon stumps, we proceed to harvest the tendon of gracilis. A vertical 2.5- to 3-cm longitudinal incision is made over the tibial tuberosity, and should be centred over the distal insertion of the pes anserinus (where the gracilis tendon inserts). There is a constant venous plexus lying at the distal end of the wound, and care should be taken to diathermy this. Using a small swab attached to an artery clip, dissection deep to the fat is carried out both medially and superiorly. A curved retractor is inserted, and a curved incision, 1 cm in length, is made along the superior margin of the pes anserinus into the sartorious fascia. Care is taken to avoid damage to the saphe-nous nerve. Through this incision, Mackenrodt scissors are introduced and opened so as to split and produce a window within the superior border of the sartorious, allowing for access to the tendon of...

Suspended bench situps

Iliopsoas Rectus femoris Tensor fascia lata Sartorius Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris Quadriceps, rectus femoris Because of the forward tilt of the pelvis, the rectus abdominis, iliopsoas, and tensor fascia lata contribute strongly. Iliopsoas Rectus femoris Tensor fascia lata Sartorius Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris

Seated barbell calf raises

Soleus Calf Raises

Pectineus This exercise, which works the gluteus maximus intensely, can be performed two different ways either by taking a small step (which isolates the quadriceps) or taking a big step (which isolates the hamstrings and gluteus maximus and stretches the rectus femorls and iliopsoas of the back leg). External oblique Tensor fascia lata Rectus femoris Adductor magnus Semitendinosus semimembranosus Gracilis

Degenerative Muscular Disorders

Apparent, with the proximal extremities more severely affected than the distal extremities, and lower extremities and torso more severely affected than the upper extremities ( ,Fig.,36 5 ). Weakness of the arms may be present but is not obvious without careful examination. The strength of limb and torso muscles continues to decline steadily from ages 6 though 11 years. Proximal muscles continue to be more severely affected than distal muscles, with neck flexors becoming more involved than extensors, wrist extensors more than flexors, biceps and triceps more than deltoid, quadriceps more than hamstrings, and the tibialis anterior and peroni more than the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior. Tendon reflexes decrease and disappear as muscle weakness progresses. By the age of 10 years, 50 percent of patients have lost biceps, triceps, and knee reflexes, in contrast with the ankle reflex, which remains in one third of patients even in end-stage disease. Significant contractures of...

Spinocerebellar Pathways

The dorsal spino-olivary tract ascends within the dorsal columns, synapses in the cuneatus and gracilis nuclei, and then relays impulses to the contralateral accessory olivary nucleus. These fibers arise in the spinal cord and are activated by cutaneous and group Ib receptor afferents. The function of these fibers is largely spinocerebellar. There are fibers traveling in the anterior funiculi that have a similar termination and are referred to as the anterospino-olivary tract.

First Order Neuron

Within the dorsal roots, the various sensory fibers are intermingled. However, as the fibers enter the spinal cord, the large myelinated fibers assume a more medial position. The more lateral aspect of the bundle is composed of thinly myelinated and unmyelinated fibers that ascend three to six segments and descend four to five segments before synapsing within the spinal gray matter of the dorsal horn. The spinal cord gray matter is described in terms of laminae, the separate areas being denoted cytoarchitectonically. These laminae often represent separate nuclei with distinctive function. Lamina IV plays a role in light touch, and lamina VI receives afferents from group I muscle afferents, for example. Most of the fibers that enter the dorsal columns of the spinal cord do so without synapsing in the dorsal horn. The dorsal columns generally represent direct projections from the DRG neurons to the nuclei gracilis and cuneatus within the brain stem. However, some of the primary...


A 14 year-old boy treated with preoperative irradiation (61 Gy) and chemotherapy for a synovial cell sarcoma of the right iliopsoas muscle. a Tumor (arrows) and normal femoral heads. b An MR scan six months later showing a close-up of the right femoral head.The scalloped, non-enhancing lesion in the femoral head is typical for an osteonecrosis. c A plain radiograph one year later, showing healing of the femoral head. (Fig. 16.6 d see next page)

Cune bench situps

Incline Bench Sit Ups

Rectus abdominis Quadriceps, rectus femoris Perform this exercise in long sets. It works the abdominal core as well as the iliopsoas, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris of the quadriceps. The latter three muscles tilt the pelvis forward. Rectus abdominis Quadriceps, rectus femoris

Sumo deadlifts

Gluteus Muscles Tendons

Tensor fascia lata Iliopsoas Pectineus Adductor longus Gracilis Scalenes Sternohyoid Deltoid External oblique Rectus abdominis, under the aponeurosis Rectus femoris Quadriceps Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Sartorius Tibialis anterior When using heavy weights, perform this exercise with great caution to prevent injuries to the hip joints, adductor group of the thighs, and the lumbosacral junction. The sumo deadlift is one of the three power-lifting movements. Sternocleidomastoid Scalene Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii, lateral'head Triceps brachii, long B ad Biceps brachii, m dia head External oblique Gluteus medius Greater trochanter Tensor fascia lata Rectus femoris


Weakness of knee flexion is a sciatic nerve mediated movement. Likewise, weakness of hip adduction, although also suggesting involvement of the L2-L4 nerve roots, is mediated by the obturator nerve. Hip flexion is mediated by the iliopsoas muscle group however, this muscle group arises proximal to the inguinal ligament and would be expected to be spared. The medial and intermediate cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the saphenous nerves, all of which arise from the femoral nerve and would be affected in compression at the level of the inguinal ligament, mediate sensory disturbance over the anterior and medial aspect of the distal thigh as well as the medial calf. Weight gain, preexisting obesity, pregnancy, and the wearing of tight work belts may predispose to this type of injury.

Shoulder Injuries

Compared to the stability of the hip joint, where the head of the femur sits deep in the glenoid cavity of the pelvis, the shoulder joint, which is very mobile and allows the arm to move through a wide range of motion, is In fact much less contained and protected. HIP JOINT HIP JOINT

Second Order Neuron

The dorsal column fibers terminate in the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus at the level of the medulla. Again, the nucleus gracilis is medial to the cuneatus and each nucleus subserves the same body region, as represented in its respective funiculus. In these nuclei, the primary afferent fibers synapse and the second-order sensory afferents send projections more rostrally through the medial lemniscus after the fibers decussate as the internal arcuate fibers in the medulla. The somatotopic organization is preserved throughout the course of the medial lemniscus. The medial lemniscus remains medial in the medulla and pons, sweeping more laterally at the level of the midbrain.

Surgical Options

A number of surgical options are available for patients with rectovaginal fistulas ( Table 33-1 ). Local repairs are performed through a rectal, vaginal, or perineal approach and may be augmented with tissue transfer, such as gracilis and bulbocavernosus muscle, if the surrounding tissues are deficient or unsatisfactory. High rectovaginal fistulas or those associated with previous surgery or radiation therapy generally require an abdominal approach. Local repairs and abdominal repairs can be performed

Third Order Neuron

From the nucleus gracilis end most laterally within the VPL nucleus and those from the nucleus cuneatus end in the larger, medial part of the VPL nucleus. The VPL nucleus is the origin of the third-order sensory afferent neuron that sends projections to somatosensory cortex (Fig. 19-1 (Figure Not Available) ). Figure 19-1 (Figure Not Available) The formation and course of the posterior columns in the spinal cord and the medial lemniscus in the brain stem. The posterior columns are formed from uncrossed ascending and descending branches of spinal ganglion cells. Ascending fibers in the fasciculi gracilis and cuneatus synapse on cells of the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus. Fibers forming the medial lemniscus arise from cells of the nuclei gracilis and cuneatus, cross in the lower medulla, and ascend to the thalamus. Impulses mediated by this pathway include proprioceptive, vibratory and discriminative touch. Spinal ganglia and afferent fibers entering the spinal cord at different levels...

Fat Extraction

Prior to investigation ofthe study population various methods for total fat extraction were compared. In all cases frozen samples were thawed, tempered to 39oC and mixed to ensure homogeneity before extraction. The method described by Bligh & Dyer (see below) was also tested with lyophi-lized milk (10 ml per sample using a Lyophilizator WkfL05, Brandau, Germany) which had been reconstituted with aq. dest. (2 ml per sample). Fat contents were always determined gravimetrically using an analytical balance R-200 D from Sartorius (G ttingen, Germany).

Cerebral Palsy

Lower Extremity Free Flap

The triceps surae, with other bi-articular muscles such as psoas, hamstrings, and rectus femoris, are mainly involved in cerebral palsy, probably because the strength and timing of these muscles have to be far more precise than mono-articular muscles.39 Lengthening of the Achilles tendon as a whole will weaken the triceps surae In a hemiplegic child, treatment has traditionally focused on the ankle to address the commonly encountered equinus deformity in this condition. Gait analysis in hemiplegics has shown a spectrum of limb involvement of increasing severity. Based on gait analysis, four basic patterns of motor disorders have been identified in hemiple-gia types I to IV.41 Dynamic or static equinus is seen due to plantarflexor overactivity in types I and II, without significant involvement of the knee and hip. Inadequate swing phase knee flexion is seen in type III due to co-spasticity of the hamstrings and rectus femoris. Type IV hemiplegics have additional involvement of the hip...

Leg extensions

Pectineus Adductor longus Sartorius Rectus femoris This is the best exercise for isolating the quadriceps. The greater the angle of the backrest, the farther toward the back the pelvis rotates. This exercise stretches the rectus femoris, which is the midline Particular portion of the quadriceps, which makes the work on it more intense while extending the legs. Rectus femoris


Euroform Hip

ACTION OF PSOAS MAJOR ON THE LUMBAR CURVE Aside from its role as a powerful hip flexor, the psoas muscle pulls the lumbar spine into lordosis, increasing the curve. Costal angle 12th thoracic vertebra 12th rib, floating rib Lumbar vertebra Psoas minor Iliac crest Psoas major Anterior superior iliac spine On the other hand, when performing specific exercises for the abdomen, if the back is not rounded with intense contraction of the rectus abdominis and the internal and external obliques, the powerful psoas hip flexors will increase the lumbar curve, forcing the intervertebral discs forward.

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