Human Brain Ebooks Catalog

Flash Brain Anatomy

This course gives you access to a full online course and software to learn more about the brain than you ever thought possible in a short amount of time. This software contains detailed, 3D brain models, animations to display concepts, hundreds of educational courses, a neuroanatomy atlas, and compatibility with most web browsers. You will also have access to a full online suite of tutors. Neuroanatomy is one of the hardest parts of anatomy to learn, and learning the brain will really be a lot easier if you had a detailed model to base your knowledge off. This software makes the brain as simple as possible, while also giving you a way to learn it throughly. This model simplifies a very complex subject that most people struggle with Don't be one of the people that doesn't know what to do with the brain model! This course is designed to teach you everything about the brain while keeping the lessons manageable and learning at your own pace. Continue reading...

Flash Brain Anatomy Summary


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Functional Neuroanatomy Of Mental Rotation

Several papers have been published in the last 10 years that dealt with exploring the functional neuroanatomy of mental rotation. These studies used positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This line of research began with the publications of Cohen et al. and Tagaris et al. in 1996 (Cohen et al., 1996 Tagaris et al., 1996). These and subsequent studies identified three brain complexes involved in mental rotation (1) superior and inferior parietal regions, (2) extrastriate visual regions, (3) temporal lobe regions as part of the ventral stream, and (4) motor and or premotor regions (Barnes et al., 2000 Carpenter et al., 1999a Carpenter et al., 1999b Cohen et al., 1996 de Lange et al., 2005 Dietrich et al., 2001 Harris et al., 2000 Jordan et al., 2001 Jordan et al., 2002 Just et al., 2001 Koshino et al., 2005 O'Boyle et al., 2005 Richter et al., 2000 Richter et al., 1997 Seurinck et al., 2004 Seurinck et al., 2005 Suchan et al., 2005 Tagaris et...

Pharmacological Neuroanatomy

The major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of catecholamines are MAO and catechol- O-methyl transferase (COMT) (Fig. 3-2 (Figure Not Available) ). Monoamine oxidase converts catecholamines to their corresponding aldehydes, which are then rapidly metabolized, generally through oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to the corresponding acid. Monoamine oxidase is predominantly located in the outer membrane of mitochondria with possible microsomal localization. Extraneuronal MAO exists however, it is predominantly an intraneuronal enzyme. In the human brain, at least two forms of MAO, type A and type B, have been identified. Certain agents have been shown to specifically inhibit these enzymes, including clorgyline, a specific type A inhibitor, and deprenyl, a selective type B inhibitor. Oxidation usually exceeds reduction, and vanillylmandelic acid is the major metabolite of norepinephrine and is detectable in the urine. In the CNS, reduction of the intermediate aldehyde formed...

Mathematical models Assistants for the human brain

Biological systems often contain many components (e.g., enzymes) that jointly determine the behavior of the entire system. The concentrations and activities of those components are regulated at many hierarchical levels (transcription, translation, post-translational modification). The biochemical reactions they catalyze usually obey non-linear reaction kinetics, such as given by Michaelis-Menten type and Hill equations. Together, this complexity hampers our ability to understand large biological systems and to predict their behavior in response to perturbations. Such perturbations can include changes in the environment (e.g., extracellular glucose concentration), mutations (e.g., oncogenic K-Ras), epi-genetic alterations (e.g., loss of imprinting) or addition of an enzyme inhibitor (e.g., a drug). In order to understand complex biological systems, the human brain needs assistance. Systems biologists do therefore not only focus on collecting experimental data on a system or a part...

Postnatal Environmental Effects on the Human Brain

However, even under these circumstances, the future is not predestined. The human species is notable for the proportion of brain development that occurs postnatally. Other primate brains increase in weight from birth to maturity by a factor of 2 to 2.5, but the human brain increases by a factor of 3.5 to 4. There is a fourfold increase in the neocortex, with a marked elaboration of the receiving areas for the teloreceptors, a disproportionate expansion of the motor area for the hand in relation to the representation of other parts, a representation of tongue and larynx many times greater, and a great increase in the association areas. The elaboration of pathways and interconnections is highly dependent on the quantity, quality, and timing of intellectual and emotional stimulation. The very structure of the brain, as well as the function of the mind, emerges from the interaction between maturation and experience.17

Acquired Drives in Service of an Unlimited Number of Dispensable Goals

The ambition to be in a permanent state of activity is a natural endowment of the human brain, which acquires drives with utmost ease. The acquisition of proper drives in the most sensitive developmental period oflife, from weaning until sexual maturity, will thereafter be determinant for the lifelong basic activity of the individual. However, since the fate of most individuals is still governed by the position in society into which they are born, only a minority is lucky enough to acquire professional drives in full harmony with natural endowments. The majority, as a matter of fact, forms - under coercion - the work-related drives that will ensure the place of the individual in the society. Conformity between one's innate abilities and acquired work-related drives is of key importance for lifelong equilibrium. However, not only the desire to be permanently active is a natural endowment of the human brain, but there is also a need for a new challenge to one's drives in due time. Even...

The Conception that Whatever Humans Achieved Derives from the Unrestricted Capacity of Their Brain to Acquire Drives

According to our present knowledge the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that maintain the enhanced orienting-searching reflex activity indispensable for successful goal-seeking behavior are the most rapidly aging units in the human brain. Over age 45 the dopamine content of the human caudate nucleus decreases steeply, at a rate of 13 per decade. If dopamine sinks below 30 of the normal level, symptoms of Parkinson's disease appear. About 0.1 of the population over 40 years of age develops Parkinson's disease and prevalence increases sharply with age. Parkinson's disease is an especially convincing example of an age-related neurodegenerative disease due to the unusually fast deterioration of an enhancer-sensitive group of midbrain neurons (see Sect. for details).

Untrained Ecr Icr acquired drive

Easy to realize that the efficient operation of any human community is based on the cooperation of brains that can be manipulated. Human society is unique because the brain work of its members is unique. The human brain acquires drives with a facility that makes the Homo sapiens qualitatively different from other species. Animals capable of acquiring drives, especially the anthropoid apes, possess, to a limited extent, the ability to perceive the unknown and the skill to create something new. Nevertheless, even the human-intervention-based acquisition process that induced the most sophisticated learned behavioral performance of a chimpanzee shows little evidence of incorporating images or concepts into the organization of the animal's behavior. In contrast, imagination is the dominant brain mechanism that determines human activity. As a consequence the human brain is unique in (a) approaching objective reality also in an abstract form, and (b) using symbols as tools of a language for...

Spatial Processing During Mental Imagery A Neurofunctional Theory

Why is the study of perception such a success story Consider five reasons. First, perception involves an easily observable stimulus-response relationship (even if the response is simply a report of the qualities of the observed stimulus). Because properties of the stimulus are easily controlled, it is relatively simple to measure and describe the stimulus-response relationship. Second, because several nonhuman species have visual systems similar to our own, the study of animal brains has greatly illuminated the neural mechanisms of perception. Third, the attempt to develop artificial visual systems has led to useful insights into the nature of vision per se (e.g., Marr, 1982). Fourth, methods from cognitive psychology have been used to study patients who have suffered focal brain lesions (e.g., see Farah, 1984). Finally, the advent of neuroimaging methodologies has allowed researchers to study the human brain in action. In the case of visual mental imagery, the confluence of these...

Subsystems Of Late Visual Perception And Visual Mental Imagery

The brain relies heavily on parallel processing to function effectively. Different areas of the brain have different processing functions, and various regions work together as systems to accomplish tasks. Studies of monkey neuroanatomy and neurophysiology have revealed at least 32 distinct visual areas in the monkey cortex, and there are probably still more to be discovered. Later visual processing and visual mental imagery can be divided into seven major components, as illustrated in Figure 1-1.

Foundational Concepts

The background topics relevant to psychiatric disorders in biological terms is vast and typically includes neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry. Since such approaches are remarkably well represented in various recent handbooks, and typically all substantive neuroscience courses, one more redundant effort in that direction would not be all that useful. Accordingly, we have used the limited space available to focus on topics that are more intimately related to psychological issues the nature of emotionality, consciousness, stress, personality, and the brain imaging technologies that have changed the face of psychiatry in the past decade. The first half dozen chapters of this text attempt to bridge between the clinical and scientific issues. To do this, we have to blend the fine and abundant evidence that is being derived from rather indirect studies of the human brain mind and the detailed knowledge about brain functions we can cull from our fellow creatures, who also live...

Vascular anatomy and classification of stroke

The posterior communicating arteries lie at the base of the brain and allow internal carotid artery to supply some posterior cerebral brain regions (modified from R. G. Clark, Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology, FA Davis, Philadelphia, 1975, with permission). circulation. The posterior communicating arteries lie at the base of the brain and allow internal carotid artery to supply some posterior cerebral brain regions (modified from R. G. Clark, Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology, FA Davis, Philadelphia, 1975, with permission).

Memory Related Anatomical Changes

Memories are presumably formed by experience-induced changes in the operating characteristics of single cells, local circuits, and large-scale systems. Little is known directly about how these changes occur in the human brain. A great deal is known about some memory-related phenomena at cellular levels in in vitro and invertebrate models, such as the marine snail Aplysia. These findings offer suggestions about the cellular bases of human memories.

Tissue Distribution of sst Receptor Subtypes

Distribution of sst subtype mRNAs in rodent and human braina Table 1. Distribution of sst subtype mRNAs in rodent and human braina unglycosylated receptor would be the functional receptor. The development of specific antibodies against all human sst receptor subtypes was a great progress in this field. These antisera were useful tools for mapping the distribution of the individual sst receptor proteins in human tissues.60 It is worth underlining that the immunohistochemical localization of sst receptors permits investigation of the subcellular distribution of these receptor. For example, electron microscopic evaluation of immunoreactive sst2A in the rat brain revealed that this receptor was located mostly intracellular and only small proportion was associated with the plasma mem-brane.61 In the human brain the immunohistochemical localization of sst2A (cerebral cortex, hippocampus) correlates well with the in situ hybridization studies.53'62

How neurons form networks

What is it about the human brain that allows it to be the basis for all the complexities of the human mind, including not only language, reasoning and memory but emotion and intuition as well. How can this apparently small organ, weighing an average of three pounds, effortlessly accomplish many tasks, such as face and voice recognition, that are quite difficult for extremely sophisticated computers

The Two Visual Streams Hypothesis

The numerous reports about patients with visuomotor disorders have contributed substantially to the currently dominant idea of a dichotomous organization of the visual system. Based on a body of already existing evidence from behavioral and anatomical studies in animals and on their own experiments in monkeys, Ungerleider and Mishkin (1982) suggested the existence of a ventral occipito-temporal what pathway and of a dorsal occipito-parietal where pathway. They decomposed the visual system into a spatial processing system on the one hand and an identification system on the other hand. However, the aforementioned observations of neurological patients suffering from optic ataxia falsified their conclusions. These observations represent behavioral dissociations within the supposed where processing and could not be fitted easily to the original suggestions of Ungerleider and Mishkin (1982). Therefore, Milner and Goodale (1995) modified the model. Referring to the same anatomical...

Current approaches for the discovery of novel NaV channel inhibitors

Cloning and analysis of human brain NaV channels Due to the importance of the human channels for drug discovery, and given the paucity of directly comparable data for the different subtypes, attention at Glaxo-SmithKline has been focussed on characterising the human NaV orthologues. Thus, cDNAs for most of the human NaV subtypes have been cloned and these have been stably expressed in mammalian cells 72-75, 112 . This has enabled analysis of the basic biophysical properties of the a subunit subtypes from human brain, allowing a comparison with published data for their rodent counterparts. Consistent with the high conservation of amino acid sequences, this comparison suggests the human and rodent orthologues are broadly similar in their basic properties, with only minor differences that may, at least in part, be due to the different recording conditions or expression systems used. Electrophysiological analysis of the human brain ortho-logues using exactly the same recording conditions...

Comparative Neuropsychology

Implicit in nonhuman research models of human brain functioning is the assumption of homologous structural-functional relationships among the species (e.g., Milner, 1998 Wasserman, 1993). Research on brain mechanisms that underlie behaviors across species contributes to the discovery of common and divergent principles of brain-behavior relationships.

Evolution of Side Biases Motor versus Sensory Lateralization

Examples of lateralization are widespread among the vertebrates, even among lower vertebrates as I will discuss in some detail, and many of those forms of lateralization are similar to lateralization in the human brain. The idea that lateralization might increase in its extent and pattern in higher species to reach its pinnacle in humans, as suggested by Corballis (1991), was an attempt to take into account the fact that nonhuman animals are lateralized without entirely rejecting the earlier notion that lateralization is unique to humans and the biological basis for human language and tool use. I will show that lateralization in humans is not unique either in nature or extent. Even the pattern of lateralization in humans shares a number of features with other vertebrates. It is true that the presence or strength of

Circadian And Homeostatic Influences Upon Central Dopamine Signaling

Gene Clock, for example, exhibit increased expression and phosphorylation of TH and increased activity in A10 neurons and associated behaviors (55). The first studies to look at circadian variations in human brain monoamine content were those undertaken by Carlsson and colleagues on the hypothalamus in postmortem tissue (56). Hypothalamic dopamine content probably peaks in midday and then drops continuously through the evening reaching its nadir in early morning. It crescendos markedly after 4 to 6 a.m. in people. The greatest variations in dopa-mine content in the nocturnally active mouse occur within the hypothalamus (57), peaking at midnight then dropping significantly by 4 a.m. At least in part, this appears attributable to diurnal modulation in the expression of TH, which nadirs several hours prior to the major wake period and peaks in the middle of the subjective day coincident with levels of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC and HVA, and motor activity (58-63). Expression of DAT...

Case Study 33 A Full Caudal Rostral Periaqueductal Gray PAG Lesion Akinetic Mutism and the Emptying Out of

Our taxonomy of disorders of consciousness emphasizes their graded, progressive nature and eschews an all-or-nothing conceptualization. While intuitively appealing, an all-or-nothing picture of consciousness provides a limited basis for heuristic empirical study of the underpinnings of consciousness from a neural systems point of view, as compared to a graded or hierarchical one that emphasizes the core functional envelopes of emotion, intention, and attention. From this vantage point, akinetic mutism is a deeply informative syndrome, as it provides clues to the neural minimums for motivated behavior and emotion in the human brain. Additionally, it bears emphasis that the syndrome of akinetic mutism potentially provides clues to psychiatry about neural substrates of other related, but lesser, apathy states, such as those seen in severe retarded depression, schizophrenia, catatonia, and the like.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

Hierarchically organized phenomenon, with various core aspects interacting with extended cognitive aspects. Core aspects include wakefulness, attentional functions, sensory content, salience, affective motivation, and agency. These core components permit cognitive extensions in extended working memories, language, and a host of higher cognitive-cortical functions that allow us an extraordinary richness and vast differentiation of conscious content. Although we have modeled consciousness in terms of these complex functional envelopes (attentional function, intention or directed activity, emotion, basic sensory content), these are clearly interdependent and seamlessly integrated aspects of consciousness, slices of the consciousness pie. Each of these functional domains represents a formidable neuroscientific problem in itself, and each requires widely distributed neural networks that are hard to study empirically. Global neurodynamical perspectives are essential to this task of mapping...

Neurological Disorders

The human brain consists of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem, which is continuous with the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system (CNS). The hippocampus, lying beneath the surface, coordinates memory functions. The human central nervous system. The human brain consists of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem, which is continuous with the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are called the central nervous system (CNS). The hippocampus, lying beneath the surface, coordinates memory functions.

How the human cortex became so big

If we trace the evolution of the human brain, the greatest and most rapid growth has occurred in the frontal lobes of the cortex, which accounts for some 40 per cent of the structure. In our nearest living relatives, the chimpanzees, the frontal cortex accounts for about 17 per cent. The evolutionary lines leading to modern humans and Although there is no watertight explanation for the runaway pace of evolutionary change that human brain development would seem to require, one of the more imaginative ideas is that our frontal brain E is an ornament required for courtship display. According to this J idea, the human brain is the product of the mutual preference of men and women for mating with partners who display unusually creative intelligence in the rituals of courtship. This can result in a form of natural selection called sexual selection. It depends on creativity in courtship and the large brain that it requires being heritable traits. If the larger brained individuals were...

Suggested Reading

J., & Zhang, X. (1993). Timetables of neurogenesis in the human brain based on experimentally determined patterns in rat. Neurotoxicology, 14, 83-144. Berger-Sweeney, J., & Hohmann, C. F. (1997). Behavioral consequences of abnormal cortical development Insights into developmental disabilities. Behavioural Brain Research, 86, 121142. Capone, G. T. (1996). Human brain development. In A. J. Capute & P. J. Accardo (Eds.), Developmental disabilities in infancy and childhood Vol. 1. Neurodevelopmental diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 25-75). Baltimore Paul Brooks. McKay, R. (1997). Stem cells in the central nervous system. Science, 276, 66-71. Porter, B. E., Brooks-Kayal, A., & Golden, J. A. (2002). Disorders of cortical development and epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 59, 361-365.

Darwin and the Scottish economists The first point of junction

In coping with the question of the human mind, Wallace, for the most part, was far ahead of his own time. Though little in the way of paleon-tological findings was available, it was already clear to him and to most experts of his day that the expansion of the human brain represents an unprecedented example of plasticity in geological time. No single major organ has been observed to grow at nearly the same rapid rate (in proportion to the body size of its carrier). However, what was clear to Wallace, but not to most of his contemporaries, was that evolutionary dynamics on the scale of geological time do not carry over onto the scale of recent historical time. Variables in the long run are often short-run constants. If the human brain and its mental derivatives were produced by natural selection then they should be fixed on the average (and limited in variance) going back to prehistoric members of the species and, by implication, across existing human societies and races. With some...

Existential Psychology

Although decisions vary enormously in magnitude and content, they all share an invariant form, namely, one can choose the future or the past. Choosing the future involves striking out in a new direction, whereas choosing the past involves shrinking back into what is familiar and already known. Choosing the future regularly is the way of personal growth and development through new experiences that provide a continual sense of vibrant, unfolding meaning. Ongoing new experiences also satisfy the constant stimulation needs of the huge human brain, needs that have evolved over the centuries. stagnation, bitterness, and meaninglessness. The eventual outcome is the conclusion that life is not worthwhile and that you are inconsequential. Further, choosing the past characteristically will be a constant source of frustration to that huge human brain, so needy of the new information that comes through symbolization, imagination, judgment, and novel action.

Mental Mechanisms and Computers

There is a great deal of wiring in the human brain, done by the neurons. But what is missing from the preceding description of brain structure, is any hint of what the mental mechanisms are that accomplish human intelligence. However, regardless of how the computers are composed, human intelligence is most likely accomplished by computers, for the following three reasons

Determination of texture by lowfield MRimaging

The combination of non-invasiveness and visualization of water and lipid distribution makes MRI unique as a diagnostic tool. In the past, MR-imaging has mostly been applied successfully within the medical field, and it has achieved general acceptance as a powerful tool in the diagnosis and assessment of tumours in the human brain and body by visual interpretation of images (Lerski et al., 1999). As the technology has matured, new applications have been developed directed at non-medical areas, such as plant physiology and anatomy (MacFall and Johnson, 1994 MacFall and Van As, 1996). More recently, the potential of MR-imaging in studying anatomical details and changes in water and transport of solutes in foods during processing has begun to emerge.

Imaging of Other Neurotransmitter Systems

Dillon KA, Gross-Isseroff R, Israeli M, Biegon A (1991). Autoradiographic analysis of serotonin 5-HTja receptor binding in the human brain postmortem Effects of age and alcohol. Brain Res 554 56-64. Fredrikson M, Wik G, Annas P, Ericson K, Stone-Elander S (1995). Functional neuroanatomy of visually elicited simple phobic fear Additional data and theoretical analysis. Psychophys-iology 32 43-48. Friston KJ, Holmes AP, Worsley KJ, Poline JP, Frith CD, Frackowiack RSJ (1995). Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging A general linear approach. Human Brain Mapping 2 189-210. Gjedde A, Wong DF (2001). Quantification of neuroreceptors in living human brain. V. Endogenous neurotransmitter inhibition of haloperidol binding in psychosis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21 982-994. Rauch SL, Savage CR, Brown HD (1995b). A PET investigation of implicit and explicit sequence learning. Human Brain Mapping 3 271-286. Soares JC, Mann JJ (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of mood disorders. J...

Structural Abnormalities

Macroscopic anatomical findings in patients with primary affective disorders have been less consistent than those of depressed patients with neurological disorders (reviewed in Harrison, 2002 Soars and Mann, 1997). Brain anatomy is grossly normal, and focal neocortical abnormalities have not been identified using standard structural neuroimaging methods. Focal volume loss has been described using MRI in subgenual medial frontal cortex (Drevets et al., 1997). Also described are small hippocampi in patients with recurrent major depression (Sheline et al., 1999), with a postulated mechanism of glucocorticoid neurotoxicity, consistent with both animal models and studies of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (Bremner and Narayan, 1998). Nonspecific changes in ventricular size, and T2-weighted MRI changes in subcortical gray and periventricular white matter have also been reported in some patient subgroups, most notably, elderly depressed patients...

Basic Principles and Techniques

The advent of CT was one of the most exciting developments in the history of neuroimaging. For the first time, direct visualization of the brain became possible. Although MRI has surpassed CT in displaying neuroanatomy and pathology, CT remains a mainstay for several reasons. Wider availability and lower costs of CT are considerations in today's managed care environment. CT is easier to perform in the setting of acute trauma and in the ventilated patient. Owing to the speed with which CT images can be obtained, high-quality studies are more feasible in the patient unable to cooperate for examination. Patients with implanted devices such as cardiac pacemakers, spinal stimulators,

Conclusions and Future Directions

What is most striking about these models as a whole, however, is that they make use of the same set of mechanisms for learning and using knowledge across such a disparate set of tasks and that they use the same two kinds of knowledge representations -production rules and declarative chunks. Although each model emphasizes a somewhat different subset of mechanisms (compare Tables 17.4-17.7, 17.10, and 17.11), they all fit together in a unified architecture, just as the many processes of human cognition all must fit together in the human brain. Likewise, modern productions systems offer an

Establishment of neural stem cells

Human neural stem progenitor cells have been established from fetal brain and spinal cord tissues, mostly from gestation weeks 8 to 20.11-17 Similar cultures have also been established from biopsied or postmortem adult brain tissues,1819 confirming the notion that stem progenitor cells exist in adult human brain. These stem progenitor cells are expanded in the form of neurospheres in the presence of mitogens, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The human neural stem progenitors isolated from the fore-brain can be expanded in vitro for up to 40 passages, with a doubling time of approximately 2 days, particularly in the presence of LIF.12'20 Therefore, neural stem progenitors, at least based on current technology, can be maintained in vitro for a reasonably long period.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI

In MRI, radio waves immerse a person centered in a magnetic field with the signals absorbed and re-emitted in proportion to the mobile hydrogen ion concentration in the tissue of the person. The absorbed energy is detected by a radio receiver when it is re-emitted. MRI has evolved rapidly and is increasingly used for both clinical and research applications into general cognitive functioning and pathology. The technique is noninvasive (e.g., does not expose one to radiation) and produces images with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Structural MRI of the brain produces images of brain anatomy, whereas functional MRI (fMRI) produces indirect measures of brain activity through the study of changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation. FMRI uses standard MRI scanners with fast imaging techniques and works on the principle that focal changes in neuronal activity tend to be coupled with changes in brain blood flow and blood volume. FMRI is becoming widely available, but is primarily...

In vitro differentiation

Neural stem progenitor cells isolated from human brain tissues and expanded in culture appear to retain some intrinsic properties of the progenitor cells in vivo. Precursor cells isolated from the forebrain can be expanded much more extensively than those from the brain stem and spinal cord at the same developmental stage. The neuronal differentiation potential of forebrain progenitors is also significantly higher than those from the brain stem and the spinal cord. The neuronal types produced by the progenitors largely correspond to those that are supposed to exist in the brain regions where the progenitors are isolated. Thus, progenitors isolated from the forebrain and striatum produce predominantly GABA and glutaminergic neurons but rarely generate dopaminergic neurons.23 These characteristics of neural progenitors reflect the need for more neurons to be produced over a longer period during forebrain development as compared with the hindbrain and spinal cord.

A computer prefers words

The models I have described in this chapter thus do both of the things required of a model of how the mind works They produce the behavior seen in human beings, and in the process they produce some of the errors seen in human behavior as well, making it plausible that the mechanism they are modeling is similar to the one used by the human brain.

HT2 Receptor Agonist Challenge

M-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) is an increasingly widely used 5-HT challenge which increases body temperature, stimulates PRL and ACTH cortisol secretion and causes anxiety with GH stimulation occurring after intravenous but not oral administration.61,62 It is non-selective in its binding to 5-HT receptors,63,64 but animal studies suggest that many of its agonist effects are mediated by 5-HT2C receptors.65 mCPP's postsynaptic site of action has been challenged in animals by an in vivo microdialysis finding that it releases 5-HT and that the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, blocks this effect and partially attenuates mCPP-mediated PRL release.66 There are however contradictory reports about mCPP's affinity for the human brain 5-HT transporter,64,67 possibly related to different methodologies. In humans, the PRL, cortisol and anxiety responses are antagonized by non-selective 5-HT antagonists68,69 and by ritanserin70 as well as clozapine,71,72 but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist, HCl...

Prescription Privileges

In March 2002, Governor Gary Johnson of New Mexico signed a law authorizing prescription privileges for properly trained psychologists. Properly trained is defined as completing at least 450 hours of coursework, completing a 400 hour 100 patient practicum under physician supervision, and passing a national certification examination. The academic component includes courses in psychopharma-cology, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacology, pathophysiology, pharmacothera-peutics, pharmacoepidemiology, and physical and lab assessment. Following the passing of the national exam, psychologists licensed to practice in New Mexico become eligible for a two-year license permitting practice under the supervision of a physician. At the end of the two years, following physician approval and a peer review of the prescribing records, the psychologist can apply to practice independently and is expected to maintain a collaborative relationship with the patient's health care...

The Nature of Homo Sapiens

We must see homo sapiens in this physical chemical perspective as a very advanced animal, an animal with by far the greatest organisational capacity of any species that had developed previously and with quite new capabilities. The activities of human beings are, in a sense, only half controlled by DNA RNA information since they are also half controlled by the unique development of the brain. Parts of the brain circuits are certainly inherited and may be coded, but the actual growth of the brain is environmentally determined to a novel large degree (Section 9.7). The human brain is in fact highly formed by education, passing on acquired knowledge in all forms of learning to the next generation which is, in one sense, an inheritance but it is also formed by novel direct experience. It might be thought that this vast development in the ability to handle the environment would remove our dependence on other organisms. We must remember however that initially primitive life was chemically...

Psychobiology Background Neuroscience Issues

In order to understand how trauma affects psychobiological activity, it is useful to briefly revisit some basic tenets of neurobiology. Paul McLean (1990) defined the brain as a detecting, amplifying, and analyzing device for the maintenance of the internal and external environment. These functions range from the visceral regulation of oxygen intake and temperature balance to the categorization of incoming information necessary for making complex, long-term decisions affecting both individual and social systems. He proposed that, in the course of evolution, the human brain has developed roughly three interdependent subanalyzers, each with different anatomical and neurochemical substrates (1) the brainstem and hypothalamus, which are primarily associated with the regulation of internal homeostasis, (2) the limbic system, which maintains the balance between the internal world and external reality, and (3) the neocortex, which is responsible for analyzing and interacting with the...

The Ventrodorsal Stream Action In Space And Space Perception

The inferior parietal lobule monkey-human homology. Lateral view of the macaque monkey brain showing the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules according to Von Bonin and Bailey (1947). B. Lateral view of the human brain showing the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules according to Von Economo (1929).

The Development of Self Consciousness

In this section, we return in a small way to the problems of information in a human context mentioned in the first paragraph of this chapter before we return to them in Chapter 11. There is another feature of human beings, which seems to distinguish them from all animals, self-consciousness, which is related to the separation of a species into individuals. We all perceive that human brain is different, not just in capacity, and we are inclined to think that it differs in kind from that of all other animals (see Figures 9.4 and 9.5). For reasons that greatly trouble philosophers and scientists alike this difference is seen in self-consciousness, an ability to explore even ourselves mentally on a scale and in a way almost unknown apparently in other animals. If we seek a reason for its appearance, and we believe that it could not happen by an extraordinary jump in evolution, then we need to find a continuous link of it within other animals of the monkey variety and of the then earlier...

Lori L Davis Kimberly A Yonkers Madhukar Trivedi Gerald L Kramer and Frederick Petty

Within this context and framework of reference, we will outline the current state of understanding of the mechanism of action of these important and unique medications. In particular, we will focus on some new findings in preclinical research. Also, the SSRIs are contrasted and briefly compared with other types of antidepressants. We will discuss issues of neuroanatomy of serotonergic function which might account for the relief of a wide variety of symptoms and effects on several behaviors. Also, the efficacy of the SSRIs in premenstrual dysphoric disorder provides a potentially important model for their action in depressive states. Finally, we provide a proposed rationale for the broad spectrum of action

For Actions In Monkeys And Humans Empirical Evidence

Several studies using different experimental methodologies and techniques have demonstrated also in the human brain the existence of a mirror neuron system matching action perception and execution (for review, see Rizzolatti et al., 2001 Gallese, 2003a, 2003b, 2006 Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004 Gallese et al., 2004). During action observation there is a strong activation of premotor and parietal areas, the likely human homologue of the monkey areas in which mirror neurons were originally described. The mirror neuron matching system for actions in humans is somatotopically organized, with distinct cortical regions within the premotor and posterior parietal cortices being activated by the observation execution of mouth, hand, and foot related actions (Buccino et al., 2001).

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In Aging

In the aging brain as well as in the case of several neurodegenerative diseases, there is a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms that increase the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage.18 The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, for example, display reduced activities in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease.19 It is believed that free radicals of mitochondrial origin are one of the primary causes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. Several studies have found increased levels of 8- hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, in mtDNA in the aged brain.20 Other studies have shown that the age-related increase in oxidative damage to mtDNA is greater than the oxidative damage that occurs to nuclear DNA in rodents.21,22 For instance, oxidative DNA damage has been detected in human brain mtDNA and in rat liver at levels more than...

Dewdneys specific criticisms of connectionism

Alongside the connectionists, who are trying to create a model of the functioning of the human mind based on the proven scientific fact that the human brain consists of networks of neurons, there are computer scientists who are trying to create artificial neural networks to solve problems on computers. Dewdney claims that these artificial networks have not been able to solve all the problems that their proponents have designed them for.

MiRNAs and Their Potential Involvement in Diseases

Clinical situations of genomic instability have brought support for a role of miRNAs in oncogenesis, as human miRNA genes have been found in fragile sites involved in cancer (61). In the highly malignant human brain tumor glioblastoma, a strong overexpression of miR-21 has been observed (62). This miRNA has been found to suppress apoptosis in this tumor, thereby contributing to the tumorigenesis process (62). In chronic lymphocytic leukemias, the genomic region containing miR-15a and miR16-1 is deleted or downregulated (63). The absence of these regulatory miRNAs allows for the overexpression of the antiapoptotic Bcl2 protein, which helps evade apoptosis (64). miR-143 and miR-145 are downregulated in various human cancer cell lines, particularly those established from colorectal tumors (65). Potential targets of these miRNAs have been previously implicated in oncogenesis (65).

Expression of Chemokine Receptors in Cells Intrinsic to the Central Nervous System

Increasing evidence highlights the prominence of chemokines in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes in the CNS. In particular, chemokines have been shown to be critical determinants in the positioning of cellular population in the development of CNS inflammation due to autoimmune reactions or infectious diseases (2,15). Several lines of evidence indicate that all resident cells of the CNS express functional chemokine receptors in the intact human brain and in the CNS of rodent and macaques as experimental models. Astrocytes and microglia express most of the chemokine receptors including CCR3 (16-18), CCR5 (17), CXCR3 (19-21), and CXCR4 (18,22,23). Functional expression of CCR2 by fetal human astrocytes (24) and by reactive microglia in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions (25) has been documented. Confined exclusively to microglia in vivo is the expression of CX3CR1 (26,27). Neurons exhibit expression of CCR1 (28), CXCR1 (29), CXCR2 (29), and CXCR4. Neuronal CCR1 expression,...

Adult Neural Stem Cells and Central Nervous System Repair

In the Adult Human Brain 219 14.3 Identification of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells in the Adult Human Brain Using the above-mentioned tools, we attempted to identify the neural stem progenitor cells in the adult human brain, in collaboration with the group of Dr. Steve Goldman in the United States. We examined Musashi-1-immunostained sections of the adult human brain of a 27-year-old man (Pincus et al. 1998). Scattered Musashi-1-positive cells were prominently identified in the periventricular area. Even though the immunohistochemical staining was conducted on fixed sections, these Musashi-1-positive cells are considered likely to represent neural stem progenitor activities (Pincus et al. 1998). These putative neural stem progenitor cells were isolated in a viable state using GFP-reporter genes. The isolated cells were cultured in the presence of FGF-2 and gave rise to functionally active neurons in vitro (Roy et al. 2000). These findings indicate that adult human brains do contain NSCs...

Oscillatory Behavior In The Visual System

Also showed that the coherence information was independent of the change in power, implying that additional information can be gained by looking at coherence results. If one were to extend these methods by performing source analysis of the coherence data, these results suggest one could provide a macroscopic view of network activity and cortical synchrony within the human brain.

Lower Motor Neuron Pool

Figure 15-3 (Figure Not Available) The parallel organization of the alpha and gamma lower motor neurons (black cell bodies). The alpha motor neurons innervate extrafusal skeletal muscle, the gamma motor neuron innervates the intrafusal muscle fibers to ensure proper sensory feedback from the muscle spindle. The activity of both motor neurons is modulated by multiple segmental and suprasegmental ir(From Snell RS Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students. Boston, Little, Brown & Co., Inc., 1987.) Figure 15-4 Functional organization of the lower motor neurons in the spinal cor(From Bossy Atlas of Neuroanatomy and Special Sense Organs. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1970.)

Role for 5HT in Depression

The status of 5-HT receptors in patients with depression are of particular relevance. Some receptor-specific challenge data showing blunted responses to 5-HTi probes have been interpreted as indicative of down-regulated postsynaptic 5-HTia receptors. However, as indicated above, data from suicide victims indicates down-regulated transporter activity and up-regulated postsynaptic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. Postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors inhibit neuronal firing, while postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors are thought to generally enhance it. Since these two receptor subtypes co-exist in the amygdala, hippocampus, some thalamic nuclei, and cortex, all areas implicated in the neurobiology of depression, the net effect of depleted synaptic 5-HT in the disease state or enhanced synaptic 5-HT in the challenged or treated state will be determined by the functional balance between 5-HTia and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. Because the anatomical distribution of 5-HT systems is diffuse, the functional...

Progressive Diseases of Infancy and Childhood

Although phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a liver enzyme, the clinical manifestations of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) relate to the CNS. There are no abnormal metabolites formed in classic PKU but only excessive amounts of normal compounds. Therefore, it is logical to assume that elevated levels of blood phenylalanine are responsible for the toxicity. Both animal models and magnetic spectroscopic studies in human brain indicate that phenylalanine levels exceeding 1.3 mM affect the brain metabolism adversely and account for acute phenylalanine toxicity. The threshold for chronic toxicity may be much lower. Acute and chronic adverse effects of high blood phenylalanine on brain can be prevented by high doses of BCAAs. Because both phenylalanine and BCAA share the same transport system, it is conceivable that mutual competition of neutral amino acids at the L-transport system may account for some of these toxic effects. Some patients diagnosed to have...

Biological Clocks And Seasonal Behavior

Depression has been described as most common in spring and autumn, and the influence of climatological factors (mainly photoperiod) on seasonal affective disorders (SADs) have been shown. One study reported cases of SAD with summer depression and winter hypomania, and Lemoine described summer SAD (or SAD reverse) in which the temperature factor was more implicated than the daylight factor. One biological explanation has been a seasonal variation in human brain serotonin concentrations, which has been implicated in the biochemistry of affective disorders. The seasonal variation in suicides has been studied in several countries. Suicides were found to be most frequent in spring and summer in Finland and in May and September in France. Seasonal variations of other psychiatric illnesses have been less studied, although a possible link between season of birth and schizophrenia (winter and spring peaks) has been described. Biological reasons may exist, as dopamine has been implicated in the...

Selected Events and Historical Actors

1573 Costanzo Varolio, an Italian anatomist interested in the optic nerve, publishes a new format for representing the human brain in which the brain is depicted outside the skull as a separate solid object.3 1664 Based on his Oxford anatomy lectures and the ocular demonstrations they include, Willis publishes in Latin Anatomy of the Brain, Europe's first comprehensive text on the structure and function of the human brain and cranial nerves. Christopher Wren (1632-1723) provides many of the engravings. It is the first text to argue for the bodily primacy of the solid portions of the cerebral hemispheres. John Locke (1632-1704), then a medical student at Oxford, attends Willis's lectures and writes in his notebook the the cerebrum in infants is a tabula rasa (literally smooth tablet).11 Locke later uses the concept as a foundation for his theory of perception, which denies innate ideas. Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, publishes Philosophical Letters or Modest Reflections upon...

The capacity for specialization and differentiation


Figure 4.1 The upper hand A cartoon section through the motor cortex of the human brain (homunculus) illustrates the great dexterity of the hand relative to other body parts. The area of the cortex which controls the motor functions of the hands is about as large as the area controlling the rest of the body from the shoulders down. After Penfield and Rasmussen, 1950, Fig. 22. Figure 4.1 The upper hand A cartoon section through the motor cortex of the human brain (homunculus) illustrates the great dexterity of the hand relative to other body parts. The area of the cortex which controls the motor functions of the hands is about as large as the area controlling the rest of the body from the shoulders down. After Penfield and Rasmussen, 1950, Fig. 22. and their evolutionary implications (many of which have been already listed by John Napier, 1993). In the end, the overall dexterity of the human hand is best explained, of course, by the fact that it dominates the motor cortex of the human...

Physiological Transport Mechanisms for Peptides and Proteins at the Blood Brain Barrier

The binding of insulin at the BBB is mediated by the insulin receptor a-subunit as demonstrated by affinity cross-linking of 125I insulin to isolated human brain capillaries. Gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the solubilized receptor revealed a band corresponding to the 130-135 kDa molecular weight expected for the glycosylated a-subunit (61). This finding fits the results of radioligand binding assays with isolated cerebral microvessels from different species including man (61-64), which showed specific binding and internal-ization of insulin. Endocytosis could be verified by the demonstration that a nonsaturable fraction of approximately 75 of the capillary binding at 37 C was resistant to a mild acid wash (61). Very similar data were obtained in primary cultures of bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (65). These Following the demonstration of high levels of transferrin receptor expression on rat brain microvessels with a specific monoclonal antibody (70), transferrin...

Network Emotional Regulatory Network Spatial Awareness Network Language Network Summary

The central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system matrix is a rich resource for learning and for retraining. This chapter begins with the structural framework of interconnected neural components that contribute to motor control for walking, reaching, and grasping, and to cognition and mood. I then review what we know about cellular mechanisms that may be manipulated by physical, cognitive, and pharmacologic therapies to lessen impairments and disabilities. These discussions of functional neuroanatomy provide a map for mechanisms relevant to neural repair, functional neuroimaging, and theory-based practices for neurologic rehabilitation. Our understanding of functional neuroanatomy is a humbling work in progress. Although neuroanatomy and neuropathology may seem like old arts, studies of nonhuman primates and of man continue to reveal the connections and interactions of neurons. The brain's macrostructure is better understood than the microstructure of...

Of Spatial Cognition And Mental Rotation

Early stage in gestation (Cohen-Bendahan et al., 2005). Besides the above-mentioned strategic differences in solving the mental rotation problem, Kosslyn et al (Kosslyn et al., 1998 Wexler et al., 1998) propose another difference in strategies which is not directly linked to gender an internal strategy in which one anticipates the appearance of the object prior to physically manipulating it and an external strategy in which one visualizes the consequences of someone else or an external force moving the object. The internal strategy is also sometimes called the egocentric strategy. In the following we will summarize and discuss the current literature on mental rotation where its investigation has used modern brain imaging methods. We place the emphasis on describing and discussing the brain imaging results in the context of the following topics (1) general functional neuroanatomy of mental rotation, (2) possible hemispheric asymmetries, (3) gender differences and (4) influence of...

Functions Controlled By The Parietal Cortex

This figure represents the putative connections of the parietal areas in the human brain. Please note that these connections are estimated from findings obtained from the Figure 9-5. This figure represents the putative connections of the parietal areas in the human brain. Please note that these connections are estimated from findings obtained from the monkey brain and do not refer to findings of the human brain. As mentioned in the text, there are currently no substantial data available for the human brain. The parietal areas are indicated as boxes with thick lines. Each box contains Brodmann area numbers and or functional anatomical descriptions. (IPL inferior parietal lobule, TL temporal lobe, CG cingulum, mTL middle temporal lobe, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, S1 primary somatosensory cortex, M1 primary motor cortex, SMA supplementary motor area, dPMC dorsal premotor cortex, PFC prefrontal cortex). Dotted arrows indicate back projections to the parietal cortex from...

Brain organization and cerebral basis of emotion

As described in Chapter 2, as early as the 19th century Hughlings-Jackson (1875) recognized that symptoms associated with brain lesions may produce both loss of normal function as well as emergence of new, sometimes abnormal symptoms. These new symptoms may arise from the effect of injury on distant uninjured brain areas leading to the release of normally inhibited functions or the loss of normally activated functions. Thus, this chapter will review brain anatomy, particularly the limbic region, to help readers understand the basis of emotional disorders following brain ischemia. Schematic drawings of the brain from lateral, coronal, and axial views are shown in Fig. 3.1. Although on initial inspection of the brain, the two hemispheres appear to be symmetrical, it has been demonstrated since the early 1800s that the human brain is functionally asymmetrical. Broca (1861) reported that disruption of language commonly occurred following left hemisphere brain injury while disturbances of...

Approaches to Intelligence

Although the human brain is clearly the organ responsible for human intelligence, early studies (e.g., those by Karl Lashley and others) seeking to find biological indices of intelligence and other aspects of mental processes were a resounding failure despite great efforts. As tools for studying the brain have become more sophisticated, however, we are beginning to see the possibility of finding physiological indicators of intelligence. Some investigators (e.g., Matarazzo, 1992) believe that we will have clinically useful psychophysiological indices

Destreaking Techniques

Dtt Iodoacetamide

Various attempts have been made to reduce the basic pH range streaks, yet achieving an optimal IEF in the alkaline region remains a challenge. For example, decreasing the protein sample concentration, anodic cup-loading, shortening IEF duration, addition of a DTT reservoir at the cathode to replenish DTT, or using an alternative reducing agent such as hydroxyethyldisulphide (HED) to form mixed disulfides with cys-teinyl thiols have all been attempted.7-9 Strategies such as decreasing protein loading compromise the detection sensitivity because low-abundant protein signals are lost and is not efficient since the primary reason for the generation of streaks (disulfide bridge formation) has not been addressed. Continuously supply of DTT to the basic end is rather variable due to the dynamic influx of DTT during IEF from sample to sample. The combination of several of these aforementioned techniques can achieve a better result, yet it is still not 100 effective.7,8 Figure 12.1 shows the...

Gross Anatomical Subdivision

The parietal lobe is one of the core regions for spatial processing. This area has undergone a major expansion during human evolution and occupies approximately one fourth of the human brain. It is the region of the cerebral cortex located between the frontal and occipital lobes. On the medial surface this region is roughly demarcated anteriorly by the central sulcus, ventrally by the subparietal sulcus, and posteriorly by the parieto-occipital sulcus. On the lateral surface the parietal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus but there is no clear macroanatomical separation from the occipital and temporal lobes. On the lateral surface the parietal lobe consists of the postcentral gyrus, the inferior and superior parietal lobule. The inferior parietal lobe comprises the supramarginal and angular gyrus as well as the parietal operculum. Several attempts have been undertaken to delineate cytoarchtectonic and myeloarchitectonic maps of the human The superior and...

Active Secretion Of Brain Extracellular Fluid

There is a more complex set of reasons to explain why the brain ECF levels of a tracer remain higher than the CSF levels. The CSF compartment turns over more rapidly than the ISF compartment, thus having a greater effect on the reduction in solute concentration in the compartment. Table 1 shows calculated CSF turnover times for several species. If the rate of brain ECF formation is approximately 0.17 l per gram of brain per minute (7), then a human brain weighing some 1200 g will produce 200 jl of ECF per minute, or 12 ml an hour. For extracellular space of brain tissue of 20 , this would represent approximately 240 ml of ECF for the human brain, giving a turnover

Novel Neurotransmitter Balance and Equilibrium Theory of Mental Illness

Thermische Behaglichkeit

From these data, we have formulated a neurotransmitter balance theory of mental illness (Fig. 11.2). In this model, three primary neurotransmitters are postulated to mediate specific dimensions of pathophysiology associated with mental illness. Dopamine, noradrenaline and GABA are conceived as mediating thought process, anxiety, and depression, respectively. In a situation of homeostasis and normothymia, the brain maintains a balance among these three neurotransmitters. When, due to stress, environmental disruption, deranged chronobiology, or other poorly understood factors, the neurobiological homeostasis destabilizes and disequilibrates, administration of serotonergic agents is theorized to equilibrate the person's behavioral chemistry back to its natural 'homeostatic set point,' perhaps by re-instituting behavioral inhibition. The advantage of this model is that it attempts to incorporate multiple neurotransmitters and their interactions. The disadvantage, of course, is that it is...

Formation of Reactive Metabolites

No experimental data concerning cerebral mEH-promoted toxicity is available. The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine, which possess aryl moieties, are metabolized in the human liver to epoxide intermediates responsible for hepatic necrosis (85). To our knowledge, however, no evidence of such deleterious effects either at the blood-brain barrier or to the brain has been presented. It should be of importance that the human brain displays a 40-fold higher mEH activity than the rat brain (43).

Runaway arms races in a vertical feeding ecology

The brain consumes eight times its share in metabolic energy, at rest. Indeed, as we saw, human beings expend about 16 of their basal metabolic energy to fuel a brain that weighs an average of 1.3 kg (roughly 2 of body weight). At this size, the human brain is already twice as large, and twice as expensive, as that of a primate similar in size. There must have been a compelling adaptive reason for such an expensive tissue to double in size over a relatively short evolutionary time span (i.e., 2 million years, approximately). I have already mentioned (in Chapter 3) the possibility that exchange was closely involved in this costly process of brain expansion. The mechanism suggested is a self-reinforcing process (in the form of an arms race) that operates in the arena of human subsistence, for that is where exchange takes place. The process is better known, and more vividly observed, in the arena of sexual selection where it tends to produce exaggerated body parts such as the celebrated...

Mechanism of Action of Pindolol

We hypothesized that pindolol could accelerate and or augment the effects of serotonergic antidepressants by preventing self-inhibition of cell firing and 5-HT release due to its ability to bind to 5-HT1A receptors. Indeed, single doses of racemic pindolol (e.g., 30 mg) prevent the fall in body temperature and the changes in hormonal secretion induced by 5-HT1A receptor agonists.79,80 This shows that, at this dosage, pindolol has 5-HT1A receptor antagonistic properties, despite reports of a partial agonistic character at S-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors when administered alone.94,95 In binding assays using membrane preparations, the active isomer (-)pindolol displays a moderate affinity for rat 5-HT1A receptors (pK approximately 7.5).96 Yet, its affinity for 5-HT1A receptors in human brain was unknown. We therefore carried out an autoradiographic study to determine the affinity of pindolol using 3H 8-OH-DPAT (agonist) and 3H WAY 100635 (antagonist) as radioligands to label 5-HT1A...

Connections Of The Parietal Cortex

The parietal cortex is part of the well-known dorsal information stream. However, the precise structural connectivity of the human parietal cortex is largely unknown. The reason for this apparent lack of knowledge is that axonal tracing techniques cannot be applied in the human brain. Although modern magnetic diffusion tensor imaging techniques are advancing these techniques they are still not powerful enough to demonstrate the anatomic connectivity at the required level of spatial resolution. Thus, our knowledge about the connectivity of the human parietal lobe is based mainly on axonal tracing studies in the macaque brain. However, the comparison of human and monkey parietal cortex is limited because there is only a rough similarity between the human and monkey parietal lobe. For example, referring to the classical maps of Brodmann the superior parietal lobe is covered by area 5 and a small part of area 7 (actually the most superior posterior region of area 7) in the monkey brain....

The Brain Stroma as the Glioma Backdrop

The human brain is made up of numerous cell types that interact physically through cell-cell, and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts, and biochemically via soluble and insoluble signaling molecules. Neuroepithelial cells of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute neuroglia (astrocytes, oligodendro-cytes, and microglia) and neurons, which are derived from the neuroectoderm. These cells produce the ECM, an important feature of the normal stroma, which provides structural scaffolding as well as contextual information to the cells. However, with the exception of the vascular basement membrane and the glia limitans externa, the adult CNS is poorly endowed with the classical ECM

Darwins principle of utility The second point of junction

Barely a decade had passed since the publication of The Origin when Wallace first sounded the alarm bells (1869, 1870). Equipped with the principle of utility, he called into question the applicability of natural selection to the evolution of the human intellect. The human brain, its higher mental faculties (the capacity for mathematics, music, poetry, etc.) and certain physical characteristics (the human hand) - all conveyed to Wallace attributes of greater perfection than was necessary for survival at the time in which they evolved. Wallace soon arrived (perhaps too soon) at the drastic conclusion that humankind's history cannot be reconstructed purely in terms of natural selection. In the end, he relegated the evolution of the human mind to some agency other than natural selection, and analogous to that which first produced organic life. After some modifications, he confined his stipulation only to moral and intellectual qualities and not to physical forms. Ironically, in his

Reviews And Selected Updates

Tatu L, Moulin T, Bogousslavsky J, Duvernoy H Arterial territories of human brain Brain stem and cerebellum. Neurology 1996 47 1125-1135. Trouillas P, Xie J, Adeleine P, et al Buspirone, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A agonist, is active in cerebellar ataxia. Arch Neurol 1997 54 749-752.

Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Intracerebroventricular and Intracerebral Drug Administration

Restricted diffusion also limits tissue distribution after intraparenchymal drug administration. Distribution has been measured in the rat brain after implantation of polymer discs containing NGF (18, 19). Drug concentrations decreased to less than 10 of the values measured on the disc surface within a distance of 2-3 mm, even after prolonged periods (several days). Therefore, applying this approach in the large human brain would require the repetitive stereotaxic placement of multiple intraparenchymal depots. The same pharma-cokinetic limitation is true in principle for the implantation of encapsulated genetically engineered cells (20), which synthesize and release neurotrophic factors.

Cognitive Neuroscience

Ing technology and raw computing power. Indeed, the exponential growth and concomitant movement of extraordinarily powerful computers to the desktop has made routine the analysis of large, complex data sets. Cognitive neuroscience is an enterprise that depends heavily on the use of modern imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and because of this reliance on technology, the ability to look noninvasively at the functionings of the human brain has only become possible very recently. The parallel development of new imaging technologies with increased computational power in the late twentieth century resulted in the development of two new methods to study human brain function. Positron emission tomography (PET) developed as an outgrowth of autoradiography. Unlike its predecessor, PET could be performed without the requirement of sacrificing the animal. PET takes advantage of the fact that when a positron (a positively...

Generating Emotional Feelings Through Upper Brainstemlimbic And Cortical Interactions

The combined body of evidence reported above supports a complex hierarchical view of how emotions are elaborated in the brain. For instance, the reciprocal relations in limbic and cortical regions during the imaging of emotions and cognitions in the human brain has prompted the formulation of a model of emotional regulation in which activity in neocortical regions plays an important role in the regulation of emotional states, including emotion generation, maintenance, and suppression (see Figs. 2.6 to 2.8). Elaborating on the observations on decerebration and sham rage in cats and dogs, Reiman (1997) hypothesized that the cerebral cortex serves to inhibit unbridled expressions of emotion.

Progenitor Cell Based Myelination as a Model for Cell Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

Progenitor cells of the forebrain parenchyma very likely constitute the most abundant neural progenitor phenotypes of the adult human brain (Nunes et al. 2003 Scolding et al. 1998). These cells are nominally glial progenitors, and have been described as such across mammalian phy-logeny. They are widely distributed in the adult brain and may comprise as many as 3 -4 of all cells in the adult human white matter (Roy et al. 1999, 2004). Competent glial progenitor cells may be isolated and harvested in bulk from human brain tissue, of both fetal and adult origin (Windrem et al. 2004). Although they have typically been described as bipotential astrocyte-oligodendrocyte glial progenitor cells, and are readily biased to an oligodendrocyte phenotype, at least some fraction can normally generate neurons as well (Belachew et al. 2003 Nunes et al. 2003). As such, these cells appear to act as tissue-restricted multipotential progenitors, restricted to glial phenotype by their environment, rather...

History And Definitions

The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves have been described since antiquity. Galen of Pergamus (131 to 201 AD) included them in his descriptions of neuroanatomy, grouping together cranial nerves IX, X, and XI as a single nerve. 11 Centuries later the anatomy of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was elucidated in greater detail by the Prussian anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering (1755-1830) in his treatise on the 12 cranial nerves. Although study of the glossopharyngeal nerve in isolation is impractical, the vagus nerve, with its numerous thoracic and abdominal visceral innervations, has long held the attention of physiologists, including the Russian Nobel Laureate Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), who, with E.O. Schumov-Simanovskaja, published in 1895 their prominent paper describing vagus nerve innervation for gastric secretion in dogs. The clinical consequences of pathology, particularly trauma and tumors, upon the glossopharyngeal or vagus nerves have been described by a...

Epilogue Concerning Biological Reductionism

A similar relationship exists between the social sciences and biology. During the last thirty years, knowledge of the nervous system has increased at an ever-accelerating pace, and it is possible to identify a couple of its organizing principles. First, the dynamic properties of the nervous system are based on the propagation of impulses along nerve fibers and the interactions between cells that occur at structures called synapses. In a sense, synapses are analogous to chemical bonds, and not so many years ago many of us thought we understood the rules by which synapses work. Today it is clear that we understood only some of the rules the discovery of neuro-active peptides and slowly acting synaptic transmitters and modulators makes it clear we still have a distance to travel. A second organizing principle of the nervous system is that in general particular functions are handled by specific populations of cells. This fact was obscured for a number of years because of the existence of...

Roughand Tumble PLAYJoy System

Among the genetically ingrained emotive systems of the mammalian brain, perhaps the most ignored has been the one that mediates playfulness. We can now be certain that certain mammals possess PLAY systems, largely subcortically situated, that encourage them to indulge in vigorous social engagements that probably promote socialization and the relevant forms of brain development (Panksepp, 1998a). It would be perplexing if the human brain did not contain psychobiological processes homologous to those found in other mammals that facilitate such joyful, emotionally positive behaviors and feelings of social exhilaration. Such systems are especially active in young animals, helping to weave them into their surrounding social structures, promoting many skills, including winning and losing gracefully. As animals mature, these systems may promote social competition and dominance urges, although the database on such developmental transitions remains modest.

Thinking and Reasoning

Morrison is president of Xunesis (, a not-for-profit company that encourages people to integrate science with their everyday lives through performance and media art that engages, entertains, and educates in both traditional and nontraditional educational settings. He received his Ph.D. in cognitive neuroscience from UCLA. His research involves understanding how the human brain implements and constrains higher cognition.

Functional connectivity between brain areas

Correlation between these regions of interest. In fact by using a factor analyses of the region of interest data, they uncovered a three-factor structure representing a large-scale cortical network, which was operative in all experimental conditions comprising mental rotation in the context of different stimulus complexities. The uncovered networks were (1) an executive control network, consisting mainly of the frontal areas, (2) a spatial information processing network, consisting primarily of the parietal regions, and (3) a lower level visual network for object recognition, consisting mainly of the occipital regions and, sometimes, the inferior temporal regions. Interestingly, the size (and number of involved regions) tended to be smaller with decreasing complexity, and smaller size was accompanied by relatively strong separation of the three networks. During more complex mental rotation conditions the networks became larger, sharing more brain areas and a lesser degree of...

Reciprocity Of Human Corticolimbic Activity

The studies reviewed above delineate potential mechanisms of limbic-cortical interactions that may be crucial to understand how the human brain accomplishes the business of normal and abnormal emotion regulation. Emotional arousal accompanying the experience of intense subjective feelings in healthy subjects (Liotti et al., 2000a Damasio et al., 2000) or active episodes of major depression (Mayberg et al., 1999) as well the emotional arousal in the presence of basic drives such as air hunger, thirst, or pain (Liotti et al., 2001) give rise to activation of subcortical, paleocerebel-lum, and limbic structures, as well as paralimbic cortex, and the concomitant, inverse sign, namely deactivation of neocortical regions known to subserve cognitive functions (Liotti and Mayberg, 2001). Conversely, cognitive processing and recovery from an acute episode of depression are accompanied by increased activation in neocortical networks subserving attentional processing, such as the DLPFC, inferior...

Upper Motor Neuron Pool

Figure 15-15 (Figure Not Available) The corticospinal tracA, The course of the corticospinal tract from primary motor cortex in Brodmann, area 4 to the spinal ccB, The fibers destined for the limbs decussate at the cervical medullary junction and become the lateral corticospinal tract. The fiber destined for axial musculature continues uncrossed in the anterior corticospinal trfFcom Snell RS Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students. Boston, Little, Brown & Co. Inc, 1987.)

Smell Central Nervous Processing

This chapter focuses on central olfactory processing in the human brain. As the psy-chophysiology of human olfactory function is important for appreciating its underlying neurophysiology, the chapter will begin with a brief overview of what the human nose can do, contesting notions that human olfaction is a second-rate system. It will be followed by an anatomical survey of the principal recipients of olfactory bulb input, with some comments on the unique organizing properties that distinguish olfaction from other sensory modalities. The final section will cover the neural correlates of human olfactory function, including aspects of basic chemosensory processing (odor detection, sniffing, intensity, valence) and higher-order olfactory operations (learning, memory, crossmodal integration), with particular emphasis on functional imaging data, though human lesion studies and intracranial recordings will also be discussed. This chapter focuses on central olfactory processing in the human...

Pathology of Restless Legs Syndrome

Lewy body-related alpha-synucleinopathy in the aged human brain. J Neural Transm 2004 111 1219-1235. 33. Almqvist P, Carlsson SR, Hardy JA, Winblad B. Regional and subcellular distribution of Thy-1 in human brain assayed by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. J Neurochem 1986 46 681-685.

Improving Intelligence

Although designers of artificial intelligence have made great strides in creating programs that simulate knowledge and skill acquisition, no existing program even approaches the ability of the human brain to enhance its own intelligence. Human intelligence is highly malleable and can be shaped and even increased through various kinds of interventions (Detterman & Sternberg, 1982 Grotzer & Perkins, 2000 Perkins & Grotzer, 1997 Sternberg et al., 1996 Sternberg et al., 1 997 see Ritchhart & Perkins, Chap. 32, for a review of work on teaching thinking skills). Moreover, the malleability of intelligence has nothing to do with the extent to which intelligence has a genetic basis (Sternberg, 1997). An attribute (such as height) can be partly or even largely genetically based and yet be environmentally malleable.


Not have a history of success in psychiatry. Based in part on our findings with patients with brain lesions and in part on hypometabolic or hypermetabolic activity in specific brain regions associated with primary (i.e., no known brain lesion) mood disorder, however, neuropsychiatrists are beginning to formulate a neuroanatomy which may mediate mood disorders (Mega and Cummings 1994 George et al. 1994-1995 Drevets et al. 1997 Mayberg et al. 1997). These and other findings led Soares and Mann in 1997 to conclude decreased prefrontal blood flow and metabolism in depressed unipolar and bipolar patients are the most consistently replicated findings and correlate with the severity of illness. Basal ganglia abnormalities have also been found in depressed unipolar and bipolar patients. These findings from primary depressive disorder as well as the findings that left frontal atrophy (Jorge et al. 2004) or left frontal or left basal ganglia lesions (Fedoroff et al. 1992) were associated with...


Reubi JC, Cortes R, Maurer R et al. Distribution of somatostatin receptors in the human brain An autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 1986 18(2) 329-46. 53. Thoss VS, Perez J, Probst A et al. Expression of five somatostatin receptor mRNAs in the human brain and pituitary. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1996 354(4) 411-9.

Vestibular System

Figure 12-3 (Figure Not Available) Cortical auditory areas. Portions of the frontal and parietal lobes have been cut away above the sylvian fissure to expose the insula and the superior temporal lobe. The number of Heschl's gyrus is variable. In this illustration, primary auditory cortex (41) is shown on the first transverse gyrus of Heschl, and area 42 is shown on the second transverse gyrus. PT, planum temp

Eventrelated Fields

A. (1995). Identification of early visual evoked potential generators by retino-topic and topographic analyses. Human Brain Mapping 2, 170-187. De Munck, J. C., Van Dijk, B. W., and Spekreijse, H. (1988). Mathematical dipoles are adequate to describe realistic generators of human brain activity. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 11, 960-966.


The human parietal cortex is a brain area, which is not well understood so far in terms of cytoarchitectonic composition and connectivity. Most available information about cytoarchitectonics and connectivity stems from studies on the monkey brain (Fig.9-4). Thus, a simple transformation from monkey findings to the human brain is not feasible. However, the parietal cortex plays a major role in interfacing sensory information with movement and action control (see Fig. 9-5, and the Chapter 17 of Gallese in this book).


In the human brain, there are many different neurotransmitters. Certain functionally different parts of the brain use different neurotransmitters. This allows certain drugs to selectively affect the mind. For example, a drug imitating a neurotransmitter can stimulate signal activity in that brain part that uses that neurotransmitter as a stimulant, thereby increasing the relative loudness of that brain part in the ensemble of the mind. Conversely, if the imitated neurotransmitter has an inhibiting effect, the relative loudness is decreased.

Alzheimers Disease

The majority of AD cases are sporadic (over 90 ), and identification of factors that influence the onset or progression of the disease is an important step towards understanding its mechanisms and developing successful, rational drug therapies. A recent genetic study provided evidence that the gene for BH located on chromosome 17 (17q11.1-11.2), is a novel susceptibility locus for development of AD56. This study showed that the G G genotype (a result of an A-G substitution at position 1450) is significantly overrepresented in Ad patients AD as compared to age matched controls. The biology behind this polymorphism is largely speculative. The A-G substitution results in a conservative substitution I443V in the C-terminus deletion of the last 18 amino acids at the C-terminus, including the polymorphic site abolishes its enzymatic activity56. To date, the only known function of this enzyme is the metabolic inactivation of the chemotherapeutic glycopeptide bleomycin9 57. It is of interest...

The parietal cortex

The parietal cortex has been identified most consistently in all brain imaging studies as being the core region involved in mental rotation. Some studies report activations centered more on the superior parietal lobe (SPL), while others emphasise the role of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as the core region. Most of the aforementioned brains imaging studies have used group analysis techniques to analyze the functional images statistically. In order to adjust for individual differences in brain anatomy, this analytical approach involves spatially smoothing the data using spatial kernels of 8-12mm radius. This can however diminish spatial precision and might result in spatially blurred activation clusters. Consideration of the spatial inaccuracy, of approximately 1 cm, that is inherent to this analytical approach is warranted when interpreting reported activation peaks. However, even if one does consider this inaccuracy, most studies do in fact report activation peaks centered around...


Since the number of different cells or tissue types that will be typically analyzed by 2DE is quite large, it is hard to describe a single protocol that will be applicable for all cases. Most samples have merely needed lysis buffer to be added to extract protein. Some examples of this kind are almost all prefractionated or prepurified proteins, human brain slices, Drosophila testes, mouse embryonic genital ridges, and pellets of Escherichia coli. Some preparations have required only slightly more vigorous disruption (i.e., with a ground glass homogenizer). Other preparations have

History Of 2415

The molecular weight determined from amino acid composition of a rat clone is approximately 73 kDa and the human is 78.5 kDa28. Most preparations fall within a 70-85 kDa range. This includes rabbit skeletal muscle (74 kDa),29 rat testis (70 kDa)31, rat epidermis (80 kDa) , bovine brain (75 kDa) , chicken liver (80 kDa)31, human brain (85 kDa)17, monkey brain (80 kDa)34 35, and others. The high molecular weight form was seen in bovine dental follicle and adrenal gland (220 kDa)927 and rabbit serum10. Human erythrocytes showed a molecular weight of 75 kDa36. In addition, numerous lower molecular weight forms have been seen. Most of these center around 50 kDa. Indeed, the first size determination of Pz-peptidase by Aswanikumar and Radhakrishnan from monkey kidne was 56 kDa4. Other tissue sizes were human brain (55 kDa),3437 monkey brain (55 kDa)35 human testis (55) , rat brain (43)39, etc. There have also been many lower molecular weight bands noted in the 20-30 kDa range, however, it is...


The brain also contains cholesterol, but unlike other body organs, has little or no cholesterol ester or triglyceride. The human brain contains about 10 lipids, 10 protein, and 78 water. The remaining 2 consists of DNA, RNA, electrolytes, and other materials. White matter is enriched in nerve axons ensheathed in multilayered, lipid-rich membranes (myelin) produced by oligodendroglia, while gray matter contains mainly neuronal cells and support cells (the astroglia), interposed between the neurons and cerebral blood vessels. The human brain weighs about 1400 grams, or 2 of body weight. Its pale appearance belies the fact that about 15 of the cardiac output is required to supply it with glucose and oxygen, and to remove metabolic wastes. The brain is efficient in this exchange and thus accounts for about 20 of the resting basal metabolic rate. Chemical energy for the working of the brain is generated in the form of 38 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) per molecule of glucose...


Covert neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, and the functional organization of speech and language systems as a contingent reality. He emphasized the need to incorporate into neurolinguistic theory implications of nonverbal communication systems of human behavior, of cultural and individual variables developed through environmental modification, and of cognitive information processing and a theory of human cognition.

Loss of Asymmetry

Many structures are normally lateralized in the human brain with area or volume being consistently larger in one hemisphere or the other. Some asymmetries are related to lateralized functions such as language. Abnormal cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia has been studied since its first observation in 1879 by Crichton-Browne. Many studies of schizophrenia have shown an absence or reversal of the normal cerebral asymmetries found in controls. These disruptions in normal asymmetry are thought to reflect abnormalities during development. The main regions where this asymmetry has been noted in neuropathological studies are the left superior temporal gyrus, a reversal of the normally larger left planum temporali, and loss of the normally larger left Sylvian fissure. Moreover, certain abnormalities in the brains of patients with schizophrenia are restricted to or worse in one hemisphere (usually the left) over the other. To site a few examples, schizophrenia subjects show thinning of the...

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