BPAP the Tryptamine Derived Enhancer Substance

The discovery that tryptamine is also an endogenous enhancer substance (Knoll 1994) opened the way for a structure-activity relationship study aiming to synthesize a new family of enhancer compounds structurally unrelated to PEA and the amphetamines. (-)-BPAP was selected as a tryptamine-derived synthetic mesencephalic RELEASE OF DOPAMINE (nmol g wet weight) Fig.3.8. Significant enhancement of dopamine release from the substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, and striatum of rats,...

Introduction

Imagination is more important than creation because it lays down the foundation of all creation. Where Do We Come From What Are We Where Are We Going Brain research is the only discipline that can answer these fundamental questions. Viewed from a historical distance, it seems to me that Pavlov's epoch-making discovery on conditioning changed once and for all scientific thinking about the brain and its self. He experimentally demonstrated, a hundred years ago, that the well-known psychic...

The Role of Deprenyl in the Recognition of the Enhancer Regulation in the Mesencephalic Neurons

A thorough, 30-year analysis of the mechanism of action of (-)-deprenyl, a drug presently registered world-wide for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, ultimately resulted in the recognition of enhancer regulation in the mesencephalic catecholaminergic neurons (see Knoll 1998, for review). The history how this crucially important physiological mechanism remained undetected for decades gives a good example of concealed traps in research. We developed (-)-deprenyl in the early 1960s (see Knoll...

Untrained Ecr Icr acquired drive

Only a limited number of species possess the ability to fix ICRs and acquire drives. Among them the horse, elephant and camel were trained by humans to help them in their hard work, the dog and cat are the most popular pets, while the anthropoid apes, the dolphin and the laboratory rat seem to be especially suitable species for the experimental analysis of fixation of ICRs and the acquisition of drives. We used the rat for this purpose. The history of human society provides eloquent testimony...

Definition of Enhancer Regulation pPhenylethylamine PEA and Tryptamine Endogenous Enhancer Substances

We can define enhancer regulation as the existence of enhancer-sensitive neurons capable of changing their excitability in a split second and working on a higher activity level, due to natural enhancer substances. Of the agents with such effect, for the time being, only P-phenylethylamine (PEA) and tryptamine have been experimentally analyzed (Knoll 2001,2003). Though enhancer sensitive neurons exist also outside the mesencephalon, we used the term mesencephalic enhancer regulation to emphasize...

Deprenyl the PEADerived Enhancer Substance

(-)-Deprenyl (Selegiline), developed in the early 1960s as a new spectrum psychostimulant and potent MAO inhibitor, later proved to be, as the first selective inhibitor of MAO-B, indispensable for investigating the nature and function of B-type MAO. Hundreds of clinical studies with the drug were designed thereafter in the firm belief that selective blockade of MAO-B was responsible Fig.3.3. Significant enhancement of norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus of rats isolated 30 min after...