Sensory Evaluation Of Spirulina Incorporated Recipes

The study was planned to develop various recipes supplemented with spray-dried Spirulina at three different levels and to rank the recipes according to the degree of acceptance. India is a country with heterogenic population having diverse food habits. Some of the commonly consumed foods across the country were identified for practical feasibility. In all, there were 22 recipes, which can be broadly classified into four categories 1. Different types of parathas with curd 2. Different types of...

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Build up both the humoral and the cellular immune system (summarized in Figure 6.2). Sulfated-polysaccharides isolated from a water extract of Spirulina, called calcium-spirulan (Ca-Sp), exhibit immunomodulatory and antiviral activities.47-50 Furthermore, immolina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide fraction of Spirulina, promotes chemokine expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells.51 Other investigations have studied the use of the Spirulina in improving immune response.52-55...

Antitoxic Effects

Far from producing deleterious effects, Spirulina has instead showed itself to have antitoxic effects in tests conducted on cells, laboratory animals, and human beings. These properties have been expressed as a protective effect against toxic damage, such as cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, eye toxicity, testis toxicity, ovary toxicity, and other effects. Table 2.5 shows some antitoxic properties reported for Spirulina and phycocy-anin against deleterious effects...

Bioactive Chemicals In Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, sometimes still referred to as blue-green algae, have increasingly been shown to be producers of a diverse array of toxic, or otherwise biologically active, compounds with potential applications in biomedicine, as well as implications for environmental health.4-8 Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of photosynthetic, prokaryotic organisms found in freshwater and marine environments. The origin of these organisms dates back 3 or 4 billion years9 and their cell structure closely...

Chemical Composition Of Spirulina

Spirulina adds to the list of the most enriched nutrient foods currently known. The alga is rich in all the three broad categories of essential nutrients including mac-ronutrients (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates), minerals such as zinc, magnesium, calcium, iron, managanese, selenium, micronutrients, provitamin A (j-carotene), riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, -tocopherol, a-linoleic acid, the most potent antioxidant enzyme, SOD, phytopigments including chlorophyll and the characteristic...

Chronic Toxicity Tests

Chronic toxicity testing is performed to assess the cumulative toxicity of chemicals, often including a consideration of the carcinogenic potential of chemical.36 Chronic toxicity studies involve repeated administrations over the entire life-span of the test animals or at least a major fraction thereof.46 For this study Spirulina was included in the feed at the same concentrations as in the subchronic study. Animals were fed for 84 weeks, during which time the effect on the weight gain was...

Contents

Morphology, Biochemistry, and Chemical Composition of Spirulina 102 Life Cycle of Antioxidant Effects of In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Effects of Various Extracts of Spirulina 104 Phycocyanin, A Major Antioxidant Constituent of Spirulina Mechanisms of Antioxidant Activity of Free Radical Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation Modulation of Metabolizing and Detoxification Spirulina and Oxidative Spirulina and Drug-Induced Oxidative Spirulina and Metal-Induced Oxidative Spirulina and...

Environmental Aspects Of Spirulina Production

There are some environmental advantages of growing Spirulina that are worth mentioning. These features of Spirulina become especially important if developments in technology bring cost of production to make it a protein source competitive enough with the current cheap sources of protein like soya beans. Spirulina production is not associated with some of the environmental degradations like soil erosion, water contamination, and deforestation that are so commonly encountered in conventional crop...

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Fatty liver, 129-130 Spirulina effect on lipid metabolism regulation, 130-133 oxidation stress, 130-133 Ferredoxin, 104 performance, 34-35 Fischerella species, 246, 255 Flavonoid, 136 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 14 Food and dietary supplement GMPs, 19 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 15, 19, 20, 190 Free radical scavenging, 107-109, 115, 121, 127-128 French Petroleum Institute, 5 Fungal polysaccharides, 189-190

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Genetic toxicity, 37-38 Gentamicin, 165 Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, 110 Gentamycin, 165, 296, 299 Gentamycin-induced oxidative stress, in rats, 165 Ginkgo biloba, 158 Glutathione, 112, 156, 301 Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 273, 274, 295-296, 298 Glutathione reductase, 273, 274, 294 Glutathione S-transferase (GST), 110, 301 Spirulina effects on, 294 Glycemic Index (GI), 58-63 factors, affecting, 58 glycemic and lipemic responses of Spirulina-supplemented regional meals, 61 of...

Heavy Metal Contamination

As in other agricultural products, lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic are potential contaminants in algal products since they are components of industrial pollution and occur in trace amounts in certain agricultural fertilizers. It is known that certain microalgae are effective accumulators of heavy metals.37 The production of high-quality Spirulina therefore requires the use of high-grade nutrients and a meticulous and routine analysis of heavy metals in the culture medium and the product....

Info

To these parameters in cadmium-intoxicated rats as well as lead-intoxicated animals by reducing various oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide.38,39 Extract of S. fusiformis provided protection against oxidative damage induced by mercuric chloride.40 Spirulina and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Damage Spirulina supplementation prevents skeletal muscle damage in untrained human beings. Sixteen students were volunteered to take S. platensis in addition...

Introduction

Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) is a photosynthetic, filamentous nondifferentiated, spiral-shaped, multicellular, and blue-green microalga that grows naturally in warm climates.1,2 The most commonly used species of Spirulina are Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) and Spirulina maxima.3 Today, there are several companies producing Spirulina as a food supplement, which is sold in many health food stores around the world.4 On the other hand, about 30 of the current world production of 2000 ton is...

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FIGURE 6.1 Schematic representative of one type of phycobilisome. (Modified from MacColl, R., Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1657, 73-81, 2004 L.-N. Liu et al., Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1708, 133-142, 2005.) by thioether bonds to the cysteine residues. Allophycocyanin (APC), phycocyanin (pc), phycoerythrin (PE), and phycoerythrocyanin (PEC) are the four basic classes of phycobiliproteins in supermolecular phycobilisomes. Electron microscopic and crys-tallographic studies have elucidated...

Life Cycle Of Spirulina

The life cycle of Spirulina (Figure 5.2) in laboratory culture is rather simple. A mature trichome is broken into several pieces through the formation of specialized cells, necridia, that undergo lysis, giving rise to biconcave separation disks. The fragmentation of the trichome at the necridia produces gliding, short (two to four cells) chains of cells, and the hormogonia, which move away from the parental filament to give rise to a new trichome. The cells in the hormogonium lose the attached...

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Macrophage chemokine production, 180 Macrophage cytokine production, 180 Macrophage phagocytosis, 124, 179, 257 Matar chop, 67 a-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) gene therapy, 138 Mercury, 15, 17-18, 128, 155, 300 Metal-induced oxidative damage Spirulina treatment for, 110-111 Metals, 29-31 see also Heavy metal Metformin, 130 Methi (fenugreek) paratha with curd, 63 Methi rice with curd, 65 Methi wada, 67 primary antibody response in, 206-209 Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with...

Other Agents

Chlorella,26 mushrooms,27,28 and agarics29 are also categorized as plants and have been suggested to have immune potentiating abilities similar to Spirulina. Although there is little scientific background or results of physicochemical analyses to support these activities, it is becoming clear that animal cells, particularly those of the myeloid lineage, are equipped with a repertoire of microbe-recognizing receptors.30 It is likely that some components of these materials can stimulate certain...

Other Toxicities

Lead As in drug toxicities, Spirulina or its bioactive constituent, phycocyanin, has been found to protect from heavy metal poisoning. Again, this protection seems to be mediated mostly by the prevention of oxidative damage through direct antioxidant actions and through induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. For example, in rats treated with lead acetate, dietary S.fusiformis (1500 mg kg) reversed the lead-induced inhibition of SOD and catalase activity in liver, lung, heart, and kidney...

Pharmacology And Toxicology Of Spirulina

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Spirulina in humans have not been thoroughly investigated. However, the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in Spirulina are digested, absorbed, and metabolized by the humans upon oral consumption. Spirulina can be consumed at a dose of 3-20 g day without manifestation of any adverse effects.91 Studies on the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity and mutagenicity of Spirulina have revealed no specific body or organ toxicity or genotoxicity.92,93...

Preface

Foods provide nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and a host of other nonessential nutrients that may confer health benefits. Research into the mechanisms of action of foods and their components have led to a virtual cottage industry of nutraceuticals that, in some cases, have been suggested to boost the immune system, enhance cognitive function, and perhaps even have the potential to slow the aging process. On the basis of these findings, some manufacturers...

References

Mittal, A., Kumar, P.V., Banerjee, S., et al., Modulatory potential of Spirulina fusi-formis on carcinogen metabolizing enzymes in Swiss albino mice. Phytother Res 13, 111, 1999. 2. Mittal, A., Kumar, A., and Rao, A.R., Modulatory influence of Spirulina fusiformis on 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice. Pharmaceutical Biol 36, 341, 1998. 3. Dasgupta, T., Banerjee, S., Yadav, P.K., et al., Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant...

Spirulina And Its Antibacterial Activity

The spirally twisted filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina has got a long history of human exploitation. An African tribe living on the lakeside of Chad in North Africa was collecting and eating the Spirulina (or Dihe) from the lake.30 Spirulina excretes variable quantities of products from its metabolism, such as organic acids, vitamins, and phytohormones, and extracts of S. maxima have shown antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtillis, Streptococcus aureus, Saccharomy-ces cerevisiae, and...

Spirulina And Oxidative Damage

Spirulina and Drug-Induced Oxidative Damage There are various drugs causing nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity through the free radical generation mechanism. Among them, cyclosporine (CsA)-induced neph-rotoxicity, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity present considerable clinical challenge. CsA, gentamicin, and cisplatin cause a dose-related decrease in renal function in experimental animals and humans.34 The generation of...

Spirulina Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of Spirulina has been analyzed since 1970, showing high protein concentration, 60-70 of its dry weight, whose nutritive value is related to the quality of amino acid. Spirulina contains essential amino acids, including leucine, isoleucine and valine. It also contains a relative high concentration of provitamin A, vitamin Bi2 and j-carotene. Spirulina have 4-7 lipids, essential fatty acids as linolenic and y -linolenic acid,27 and m-3 and m-6 polyunsaturated fatty...

Table

Spirulina Short- and Long-Term Toxicity Studies* The oral treatment with as much as 800 mg kg produced no alterations in body weight or organs. Tissues showed normal histology. Also there was no allergic skin reaction with an application of as much as Phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina given orally (0.5-5 g kg) added with the feed induced no toxicity symptoms or mortality in animals. At terminal autopsy no macroscopic or microscopic changes were seen on vital organs. The continuous feeding of...

The Role Of Inflammation In Aging

In aging, a series of unchecked inflammatory events can lead to exaggerated proin-flammatory cytokine levels such as, increases in interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-1 receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and transforming growth factor- .1> 2 When functioning correctly, cytokines send the appropriate amount of the correct signal to assist in resolving the immune stimulus such as, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, which act to suppress inflammation, or IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, and IL-12, which act to...

The Role Of Neurogenesis In Aging

Another process impaired in normal aging is neurogenesis within the granule cell layer (GCL) in the hippocampus. Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout the life predominantly in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippo-campal formation and in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Neural stem cells in the SGZ give rise to progenitor cells that migrate in the granule cell layer and differentiate into neuronal or glial phenotype. Progenitors in the SVZ migrate into the olfactory...

Therapeutic Uses Of Spirulina

Spirulina and its active constituents have specific therapeutic uses beyond general nutritional values. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that either Spirulina or its active constituent, C-phycocyanin is promising in chemoprevention and cancer protection,98 neuroprotection,99 antiviral action,100 cardiovascular protection,87 immunomodulation,101 hepatoprotection,102 anti-inflammatory action,103 antioxidant action,104 and protection against chemical- and drug-induced toxicities.87,105-107

Usa

Health Canada Spirulinad UN (WHO FAO) JECFAe 10 mcg person day 4.1 mcg person day 0.5 mcg person day No data 0.3 mcg kg d (chronic) < 0.14 mcg kg bw d 2 mcg kg bw d No legislation in force (UK 1 ppm in food) (chronic) < 0.29 mcg kg bw d 0.23 mcg kg d (methyl Hg) 0.1 mcg kg d (methyl Hg in pregnancy) 0.71 mcg kg d (total Hg) 0.23 mcg kg d (methyl Hg) a California Proposition 65 Safe Harbor Levels. b United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) www.fda.gov The Cd and Pb values are...

What Is Spirulina

In its commercial use, the common name, Spirulina, refers to the dried biomass of the cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis, and is a whole product of biological origin. The source strain, cultivated by producers in the United States was obtained from the University of Texas at Austin Algae Culture Collection (UTEX). This strain, designated UTEX 1926, was originally isolated from an alkaline salt flat near Del Mar, California, by R. Lewin in 1969. In its taxonomic use, Spirulina is a name used...

Worldwide Production Of Spirulina And Its Current

Arthrospira (Spirulina) is currently grown commercially in several countries. The major producers of Spirulina are the DIC group of companies, Earthrise Nutritionals in California, USA Hainan DIC Marketing in Hainan Island, China and Siam Algae Company in Bangkok, Thailand. Together these facilities produce about 1000 metric tons of Spirulina annually. The other major producer is Cyanotech Corporation of Hawaii with an annual production of 300 tons of Spirulina. There are also many producers...

Spirulina Production Nature To Nurture

Most of the information that is used to grow Spirulina in outdoor culture is derived from observations made on natural blooms of these algae in natural lakes. Of special significance is their adaptation to highly alkaline (up to 400 meq l) and very high pH (up to 11) of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This harsh chemical environment essentially prohibits the growth of other algae. It is therefore not uncommon to find almost unialgal populations of Arthrospira in these lakes. The...

Spirulina As An Antioxidant

Currently, S. platensis is gaining a tremendous attention not only for its nutritional values but also for its potential antioxidant properties. Experimental and epidemiolo-gical evidences suggest that oxidative stress characterized by excessive generation of ROS is a critical player in many pathological states including the inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and reperfusion injury.108-112 Therefore, the...

Method Of Preparation And Composition Of Recipes

The details of the recipes used for standardization as well as GI are given below. Please make a note that wherever the incorporation of Spirulina is mentioned, it is indicative that in case of standardization, Spirulina was supplemented at three levels in the recipes, namely, 1 g, 2.5 g, and 5 g levels whereas, for finding the GI, Spirulina was incorporated at the level of 2.5 g. Plain Paratha with Tomato-Onion Raita Wheat flour (60 g) was sieved. Spirulina powder was added. Stiff dough was...

Spirulina Antiviral Studies In Vitro

The first report studying the antiviral properties from the blue-green alga Spirulina was published by Hayashi et al. in 1993. In vitro, they demonstrated that a hot water soluble extract prepared from S. platensis inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in HeLa cells, in a dose-dependent concentration, from 0.08 to 50 mg mL. The extract did not have a virucidal effect, and the viral inhibition was due to an interference with the penetration event.11 After this report,...

Food and Dietary Supplement GMPs

Spirulina is regulated as food and as a dietary supplement. The latter is a subset of food and falls under FDA's regulation. As discussed earlier, Spirulina is produced under FDA GMPs for food. The FDA has recently released a separate regulation for dietary supplement GMP. Nevertheless, some companies have already attained dietary supplement GMP certification through the industry's (Natural Products Association) certification program. The two facilities in the United States are subject to...

Fertility and General Reproductive Performance

This study is designed to assess the potential toxic effects of a test substance on gonad function and mating behavior in both male and female animals, as well as conception rates, early and late stages of gestation, labor, lactation, and development of offspring.66 In our experiments we used rats and mice. Males were fed Spirulina for 9 weeks while females were fed for 2 weeks before mating, and feeding continued afterward and throughout gestation. Every day females were housed overnight with...

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids may be considered as biogenic substances and are repeatedly blamed for major limitations in the use of algae and other microorganisms as sources of food.35 Because uric acid is produced in humans and other mammals when purines are metabolized and since high levels of this metabolite may result in pathological conditions such as gout while also representing a risk factor for coronary heart disease, the high content of nucleic acid in microbial cells used as food or feed is a...

Probiotic Activity Of Spirulina

Consumption of yoghurt and other fermented dairy products prepared with Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacteria strains has increased all over the world in recent years. It is considered by both the general public and expert nutritionalist that they provide humans with major benefits protection from infection of intestinal pathogen microorganisms,123 stimulation of the immune system,124 as well as better digestion, and absorption of lactose and minerals,125 prevention of traveler's...

Lichen Wu and Jaan Annie Ho Contents

Antioxidant Properties of Spirulina Structure of Effect of Phycocyanin on Lipid Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Immunoenhancing Effects of Spirulina Antiviral Effects of Anticancer Effects of Heptoprotective Effect of Antioxidative Effect and Metalloprotection and Effect of Spirulina on Fatty Fatty Liver Regulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress by Spirulina on Fatty Effect of Spirulina on Liver Liver Fibrosis and Activation of Hepatic Stellate Oxidative Stress and Liver Spirulina and...

Regulatory Activities On Immune System Of Spirulina

Spirulina And Immune System

Certain species of Spirulina have shown to exhibit immunomodulating and biomod-ulating properties. Studies indicated immunoenhancing properties of S. platensis in animals and humans. Administration of this cyanobacterium has improved immunological resistance in subjects with various types of cancer, viral, and bacterial diseases (Figure 12.5). It was reported145 that Spirulina up-regulates key cells and organs of the immune system improving their ability to function in spite of stress from...

Therapeutic Utility Of Spirulina In Diabetes Mellitus

Noncommunicable diseases are increasing to alarming proportions and gaining their hold over the developing countries. One of the noncommunicable diseases that has gained importance is diabetes mellitus because of its rising prevalence. Worldwide, the number of cases of diabetes is currently estimated to be around 150 million. This number is predicted to double by 2025, with the greatest number of cases being expected in China and India.3 The rising prevalence of diabetes and its associated...

Spirulina As A Natural Therapeutic Intervention For Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Aging

Spirulina, is a very interesting and promising source of phytochemicals that has also shown hopeful results in dealing with age-related changes. With both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, Spirulina has the ability to supplement our internal anti-oxidant defense systems as well as control any excessive inflammation. The first known use of Spirulina as a dietary supplement came from the Aztecs more than 400 years ago. The Spanish conquistadors found the Aztecs drying the green growth,...

Antiinflammatory Activity Of Spirulina

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has an important role in catalyzing the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and other eicosanoids.37 The overexpression of COX-2 is associated with high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that are observed in various malignancies of the colon, breast, lung, prostrate, skin, cervix, pancreas, and bladder.38 Excess prostaglandin levels cause inflammation, influence cell proliferation, and the mediation of immune suppression.39,40 Many investigations have...

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these...

Spirulina In Adaptive Immune Responses

There are several studies investigating the effect of Spirulina on the antibody production by B cells in response to immunization (primary immune response) and challenge (secondary immune response) with a specific antigen. In the earliest of these studies, mice were fed diets containing 10 or 20 of S. platensis, immunized with sheep red blood cells after 7 weeks, and challenged after 9 weeks.8 Spirulina feeding significantly increased the number of IgM antibody-producing cells in the spleen...

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A A minus sign indicates that treatment with Spirulina began before the drag treatment, which was given starting on Day 0 b Norm. normalized, that is, not significantly different from control levels. c Sign. rev. significant reversal of drag-induced inhibition. d Antioxidant enzymes were measured in the liver. e The highest dose appeared to normalize these enzyme activities, but no statistical comparison was performed between controls and animals treated with drags plus Spirulina. dose...

Spirulina Antiviral Studies In Vivo

The therapeutic efficacy of the Spirulina hot water soluble extract has been evaluated against HSV-1 corneal infection in hamsters. Hamsters fed with the extract at a dose of 100 or 500 mg Kg body weight per day, for 7 days before the HSV-1 infection, have shown longer mean survival times, while all the animals of the control group died 8 days after the infection about 15-30 of the animals treated with the extract remained alive. No evidence of toxicity was detected in the hamsters fed with...

Effect Of Spirulina On Fatty Liver

Fatty liver is a common cause of chronic liver disease and refers to accumulation of excess fat in the liver. It is diagnosed that if fat exceeds 5 of the total weight of normal liver or when more than 30 of the hepatocytes in a liver lobule have lipid deposits, most of the fat that accumulates in the liver is triacylglycerols and fatty acids other forms of fat, such as cholesterol, cholesterol ester, and phospholipids, are also present. Fatty liver is often associated with alcoholic liver...

Spirulina And The Innate Immune System

Spirulina has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in experimental animals and to induce the regression of existing tumors.1-4 There are indications that one of the mechanisms involved in this protective effect is the stimulation of innate immune responses, in particular macrophage phagocytosis and production of chemokines and cytokines. In vitro, addition of Spirulina to macrophages obtained from the lung of cats significantly raised the percentage of phagocytic macrophages without affecting...

Therapeutic Utility Of Spirulina In Iron Deficiency Anemia

Two studies have been carried out in the department with regards to Spirulina supplementation in anemic subjects. One of the studies was carried out on adolescent girls and the other on pre school children, the details of the same are discussed below The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of spray-dried Spirulina powder on hemoglobin levels of anemic adolescent girls. In all, 120 adolescent girls were screened for their anthropometric measurements and blood...

Studies Of Spirulina In Druginduced Toxicities

Cisplatin is a highly effective chemotherapy drug. Unfortunately, it can be associated with kidney toxicity, resulting in severe and often irreversible renal failure. Several recent studies have investigated the ability of Spirulina to protect rats from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In one of these studies S. fusiformis was given orally at doses of 500, 1000, or 1500 mg kg body weight from 2 days before until 3 days after the injection of cisplatin.18 Administration of this alga was...

Therapeutic Utility Of Spirulina In Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is defined as a clinical condition in which gt 3.5 g 1.73 m2 day of proteins are excreted in the urine. The defects in the change or size of selective barriers of the glomerular capillary wall that underline the excessive filtration of plasma proteins can arise as a consequence of a variety of diseases processes, including immunological disorders, toxic injuries, metabolic abnormalities, biochemical defects, and vascular disorders. Thus, nephrotic syndrome is a common end...