Pqk

Acetaldehyde, 138

Acidophilusbifidus-thermophilus (ABT), 256 Activator protein-1 (AP-1), 135, 137 Acute toxicity tests, 32-34 Acute tubular necrosis, 155 Adaptive immune responses, Spirulina in, 178 antibody production, by B cells, 187-188 effect, on T cells, 188-189 hematopoiesis, 189 Spirulina constituents, absorption of, 189-190 Adopohepatosis, 245-246 ^-Adrenergic receptor function, in aged rats,

278, 279 Aeromonas hydrophila, 259 Aerva lanata, 157-158 Agarics, 198 Aging inflammation role, 271-272

therapeutic interventions, 276-277 microglia role, 274-275 neurogenesis role, 275-276 oxidative stress role, 272-274 therapeutic interventions, 276-277 Alimentos esenciales para la humanidad

(AEH), 32 Alkoxyl radical scavenging activity, of phycocyanin, 108 Allergic inflammation, 184-186 Allophycocianin, 230, 238-239 All-trans-retinoic acid, 222 Anaphylaxis, 185

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

inhibitor, 155 Animal models, 124, 126, 130, 134, 190, 257, 283 of inflammatory diseases, 184 Antibacterial activity of cyanobacteria, 248-250

bioactive chemicals, 243-247 of Spirulina, 243, 247-251

fatty acids, effect of, 251-253, 254 of Spirulina platensis extracts, 247, 250-251

Antibiotics, 154-155, 245 Antibody production by B cells

Spirulina, effect of, 187-188 by Spirulina, 205 Anticancer effects, of Spirulina,

125-126 Antifungal activity, 246, 247, 250 Antigen-entrapped microparticles,

214-218 Anti-inflammatory effects, 283 of phycocyanin, 182-183 of Spirulina, 182-183 antiviral effects, 125 immunoenhancing effects, 123-125 Antioxidant profile, of Spirulina, 101 biochemistry, 102-103 chemical composition, 102-103 future implications, 115-116

in vitro antioxidant effects, 104-106 in vivo antioxidant effects, 104-106 life cycle, 103-104 mechanism free radical scavenging, 107-109 lipid peroxidation, inhibition of, 109 metabolizing and detoxification enzymes, modulation of, 110 morphology, 102-103 phycocyanin, 106-107 oxidative damage drug-induced oxidative damage, 110 exercise-induced oxidative damage, 111-112

hepatotoxin-induced oxidative damage, 114

metal-induced oxidative damage, 110-111

neuronal oxidative damage, 114-115 nitrosative stress, 112-114 Antioxidant properties, of Spirulina, 105, 120-123 phycocyanin effect, on lipid peroxidation,

122-123 structure, 121-122 Antitoxic effects, of Spirulina, 39, 40-43

Antiviral effects, of Spirulina, 125, 233 Antiviral polysaccharides

immulina, 237-238, 278 spirulan-like polysaccharides, 237 Antiviral proteins allophycocianin, 230, 238-239 CBP, 232-233, 239 AOAC (Association of Official Analytical

Chemists), 18 Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, 246 Apoptosis, 114-115, 123, 126, 138, 139, 156, 161, 162, 163, 178, 239, 281; see also C-phycocyanin apoptosis; Hepatic macrophage apoptosis prevention of, 299-300 Arachidonic acid, 123, 132, 273 ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA

Restriction Analysis), 2-3 Arsenic, 15, 155 Arsenic poisoning, 300-301 Arthrospira, see Spirulina Arthrospira fusiformis, see Spirulina fusiformis Arthrospira indica, see Spirulina indica Arthrospira maxima, see Spirulina maxima Arthrospira platensis, see Spirulina platensis Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, 251 Azadirachta indica, 246 2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane)

dihydrochloride (AAPH), 108, 115

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