In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Effects of Various Extracts of Spirulina
The antioxidant properties of Spirulina and its extracts have recently attracted the attention of researchers (Table 5.1). In one of the earliest studies, Manoj et al.12 reported that the alcohol extract of Spirulina inhibited lipid peroxidation more significantly (65% inhibition) than the chemical antioxidants like «-tocopherol (35%), butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant (BHA) (45%), and beta-carotene (48%). The water extract of Spirulina was also shown to have better antioxidant effect (76%) than gallic acid (54%) and chlorogenic acid (56%). An interesting aspect of their finding is that the water extract had a significant antioxidant effect even after the removal of polyphenols. In another study, by Zhi-gang et al.,13 the antioxidant effects of two fractions of a hot water extract of Spirulina were studied using three systems that generate superoxide, lipid, and hydroxyl radicals. Both fractions showed significant capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (the most highly reactive oxygen radical), but no effect on superoxide radicals. One fraction had significant activity in scavenging lipid radicals at low concentrations. Miranda et al.,14 demonstrated the antioxidant
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