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Spirulina extracts as a stimulant (mg mL 1)

FIGURE 10.14 Colony and cluster formation of bone marrow-cells in soft agar assay cultured with supernatant of spleen cells stimulated with Spirulina extracts (From Hayashi, O., J. Appl. Phycol., 18, 52, 2006. With permission.)

Spleen cells were stimulated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/ml of Spirulina extract. Peritoneal-exudes cells were stimulated with 2.0 mg/ml Spirulina extract. Values are means ± SD of three samples.

Spirulina extracts as a stimulant (mg mL 1)

FIGURE 10.14 Colony and cluster formation of bone marrow-cells in soft agar assay cultured with supernatant of spleen cells stimulated with Spirulina extracts (From Hayashi, O., J. Appl. Phycol., 18, 52, 2006. With permission.)

Spleen cells were stimulated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/ml of Spirulina extract. Peritoneal-exudes cells were stimulated with 2.0 mg/ml Spirulina extract. Values are means ± SD of three samples.

extracts, especially Pc or SpCW, increased colony-formation of bone marrow cells (Figure 10.14). High amount of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3 as a colony-forming activity was detected in the culture super-natants of the spleen cells as well as in peritoneal-exudes cells stimulated with the Spirulina extracts, especially with SpCW (Table 10.3). Multipotent colony-stimulating factors such as G- and GM-CSF and IL-3, which have been known to be produced by a variety of cells including monocytes and lymphocytes, can support proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells.43 Valtieri et al.44 reported that in in vitro system using the IL-3-dependent granulocytic lineage 32D clone 3 (Cl3) cells derived from normal murine bone marrow, G-CSF stimulated terminal differentiation of the cells into neutrophilic granulocytes. Spirulina and its components such as phycocyanin can affect enhancing proliferation or differentiation of immune competent-cells in lymphoid organs including bone marrow cell, which may cause normally sustaining or enhancing immune functions.

Colony-forming activity was also significantly induced in the blood, spleen, and Peyer's patch cells in mice that ingested Spirulina extracts, SpHW, Phyc or SpCW, orally for 5 weeks in in vivo study (Figure 10.15). Ratios of neutrophils and lymphocytes of the mice fed with SpHW and SpCW were, in fact, consequently increased in the peripheral blood (Figure 10.16). In addition, ratios of reticulocytes by SpHW and

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