Contents

Introduction 177

Spirulina and the Innate Immune System 179

Macrophage Phagocytosis 179

Macrophage Chemokine and Cytokine Production 180

Inflammation 180

Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes 181

Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species 181

Animal Models of Inflammatory Diseases 184

Allergic Inflammation 184

NK Cells 186

Spirulina in Adaptive Immune Responses 187

Antibody Production by B Cells 187

Effect on T Cells 188

Spirulina and the Generation of Immune Cells (Hematopoiesis) 189

Absorption of Spirulina Constituents 189

Concluding Remarks 190

References 191

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