Contents

Introduction 101

Morphology, Biochemistry, and Chemical Composition of Spirulina 102

Life Cycle of Spirulina 103

Antioxidant Effects of Spirulina 104

In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Effects of Various Extracts of Spirulina .. 104

Phycocyanin, A Major Antioxidant Constituent of Spirulina 106

Mechanisms of Antioxidant Activity of Spirulina 107

Free Radical Scavenging 107

Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation 109

Modulation of Metabolizing and Detoxification Enzymes 110

Spirulina and Oxidative Damage 110

Spirulina and Drug-Induced Oxidative Damage 110

Spirulina and Metal-Induced Oxidative Damage 110

Spirulina and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Damage 111

Spirulina and Nitrosative Stress 112

Spirulina and Hepatotoxin-Induced Oxidative Damage 114

Spirulina and Neuronal Oxidative Damage 114

Others 115

Future Implications and Conclusion 115

References 116

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Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

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