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Normal serum OVA SpHW Phyc Serum samples

SpCW

FIGURE 10.15 Colony and cluster formation of bone marrow-cells in soft agar assay cultured with serum from mice fed with Spirulina extracts for five consecutive days (From Hayashi, O., J. Appl. Phycol., 18, 52, 2006. With permission.) Values are means ± SD of three samples.

Normal serum OVA SpHW Phyc Serum samples

SpCW

FIGURE 10.15 Colony and cluster formation of bone marrow-cells in soft agar assay cultured with serum from mice fed with Spirulina extracts for five consecutive days (From Hayashi, O., J. Appl. Phycol., 18, 52, 2006. With permission.) Values are means ± SD of three samples.

lymphocytes by Phyc were increased in the bone marrow of the mice. Zhang et al.45 found that c-phycocyanin and polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina increased leukocyte and bone marrow nucleated cell counts as well as the number of colony-forming unit-granulocyte and macrophage (CFU-GM) in the gamma-ray irradiated mice. They also found that c-phycocyanin possessed high erythropoietin activity. These findings support our results.

Much evidence for clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF and IL-3 to bone marrow failure patients has been accumulated to date. These cytokines as well as erythropoietin are effectively used to decrease cytopenias associated with high-dose chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, and leukemia patients,46 and a phase I study of aerosolized GM-CSF recently demonstrated tolerance and possible efficacy in patients with malignant metastases to the lungs,

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