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also enhanced (Figure 10.2), whereas the mitogenic activity with LPS, a B-cell mitogen, was not affected. Adding either a hot-water extract of Spirulina (SpHW) or a culture supernatant of macrophages stimulated with SpHW to spleen cells in culture increased numbers of PFCs in in-vitro experiment. The culture supernatant of macrophages stimulated with SpHW contained significantly increased levels of both interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity (Figure 10.3) and TNFa. These results suggested that Spirulina enhanced the immune response in mice, particularly the primary response, by stimulating macrophage functions.

Lee et al.13 reported that feeding prawns, Penaeus merguiensis, with S. platensis (0.3% w/w feed) enhanced phagocytic activity of the hemocytes from hemo-lymph against some bacteria such as Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium used. They suggested that lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycan in Spirulina might nonspecifically activate phagocytic hemocytes of the prawns. Liu et al.14 reported that intraperitoneally injected polysaccharides of Spirulina increased the percentage of phagocytic cells in peritoneal macrophages in addition to increasing the hemolysin content in the blood of mice. Macrophages from chickens exposed to water-soluble extract of Spirulina also showed increased percentage of phagocytic cells as well as increased numbers of internalized unopsonized SRBC per phagocytic cell.15 Pugh et al.16 demonstrated that water-soluble polysaccharide preparations from food-grade S. platensis (a polysaccharide named "Immunlina") and from Chlorella pyrenoidosa (a polysaccharide named "Immurella") had immunostimulatory activity detected by a transcription bioassay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in THP-1 human monocytes/macrophages, and substantially increased mRNA levels of inter-leukin (IL-1^) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa). Recently, Wu et al.17 showed that both water extracts from Chlorella (C. vulgaris) and Spirulina (S. maxima) had potential activities of treatment of liver fibrosis inhibiting hepatic stellate cell (HSC)

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