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Carotenoids extracted from Spirulina were given orally (100 mg/kg) to CHQ4 treated animals. Carotenoids had a stronger antihepatotoxic effect as shown by biochemical parameters, compared to synthetic beta-carotene and beta-carotene only from a natural source. Carotenoids from Dunaliella showed better biological activity.

The micronucleus test showed Spirulina extract (1-5 mg/kg), given orally, protects mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes against gamma-radiation injury.

Using the micronucleus test, pretreatment with Spirulina (250, 500, and 100 mg/kg) reduced chromosomal damage and lipid peroxidation induced by cyclophosphamide and mitomycin-C. Changes in antioxidant and detoxification systems were seen suggesting antioxidant effects.

Polysaccharide of Spirulina 30 and 60 mg/kg increased the level of the white cells in blood and nucleated cells, as well as DNA in bone marrow in mice. At 12 mg/kg increased the level of the red cells, white cells, and hemoglobins in blood as well as nucleated cells in bone marrow in dogs.

The hydrazide induced micronuclei frequency in a Tradescantia bioassay was decreased by the aqueous and dimethyl extracts of Spirulina. These data indicate that the alga is an anticlastogenic agent.

The micronucleus test showed that pretreatment with Spirulina (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) inhibited genotoxicity and reduced lipid peroxidation induced by cisplatin and urethane. A concomitant increase in liver enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants was seen.

Spirulina given orally (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg) to male or female mice showed an antimutagenic effect against cyclophosphamide, evaluated by the dominant-lethal test. The results illustrate the alga's protective role in genetic-related damage to germ cells.

Phycocyanin (100 mg/kg) given orally controlled renal 32, 33, 111 tubular damage and oxalate induced histopathological lesions. Biliprotein was suggested to have protected antioxidant defense systems in renal tissues and improve the thiol content in renal tissue and red blood cell lysate.

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