Info

Weight Loss Breeze

Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

Get Instant Access

Pugh, N. et al., Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorellapyrenoidosa, Planta Med., 67 (8), 737-42, 2001.

Wu, L. C. et al., Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of spirulina and chlorella water extracts, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53 (10), 4207-12, 2005.

Hayashi, O. et al., Effects of the extracts from Spirulina and Chlorella on the immune function of mice in culture, Ann. Inst. Nutr. Sci. KagawaNutr. Univ., 13, 71-77, 1994.

Isobe, K. et al., Bactericidal activity of mouse macrophages stimulated with Spirulina extracts, J. Kagawa Nutr. Univ., 26, 61-66, 1995.

Kilian, M. and Russell, M. W., Function of mucosal immunoglobulins, in Handbook of Mucosa Immunology, Orga, P. L., Mestecky, J., Lamm, M. E. et al., Eds., Academic Press, New York, 1994.

Schmucker, D. L. et al., Basis for the age-related decline in intestinal mucosal immunity, Clin. Dev. Immunol., 10 (2-4), 167-72, 2003.

Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H. et al., Mucosal immunity: Its role in defense and allergy, Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 128, 77-89, 2002.

Hayashi, O. et al., Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 44, 841-51, 1998.

24. Bozelka, B. E. et al., Soy- and shrimp-specific IgE responses in orally and intraperitoneally immunized mice, Int. Archs. Allergy appl. Immun., 83, 271-77, 1987.

25. Elson, C. O. and Dertzbaugh, M., Mucosal adjuvants, in Handbook of Mucosal Immunology, Orga, P. L., Mestecky, J., Lamm, M. E. et al., Eds., Academic Press, New York, 1994, pp. 391-402.

26. O'Hara, A. M. et al., Functional modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell responses by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus salivarius, Immunology, 118 (2), 202-15, 2006.

27. Takahashi, T. et al., Effects or orally ingested Bifidobacterium longum on mucosal IgA response of mice to dietary antigens, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 62, 10-15, 1998.

28. Lee, A. N. and Werth, V. P., Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory herbal supplements, Arch. Dermatol., 140 (6), 723-7, 2004.

29. Nemoto-Kawamura, C. et al., Effects of Spirulina phycocyanin ingestion on the mucosal antibody responses in mice, J. Phys. Fit. Nutr. Immunol., 13, 102-11, 2003.

30. Eldridge, J. H. et al., Controlled vaccine release in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues I. Orally administered biodegradable microspheres target the Peyer's patches, J. Controlled Release, 11, 205-14, 1990.

31. Challacombe, S. J. et al., Enhanced secretory IgA and systemic IgG1 antibody responses after oral immunization with biodegradable microparticles containing antigen, Immunology, 76, 164-68, 1992.

32. Challacombe, S. J., Rahman, D., and O'Hagan, D. T., Salivary, gut, vaginal and nasal antibody responses after oral immunization with biodegradable microparticles, Vaccine, 15, 169-75, 1997.

33. Jeffery, H., Davis, S. S., and O'Hagan, D. T., The Preparation and characterization of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. II. The entrapment of a model protein using a (water-in-oil)-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique, Pharm. Res., 10, 362-68, 1993.

34. Uchida, T. and Goto, S., Oral delivery of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres containing ovalbumin as vaccine formulation: Particle size study, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 17, 1272-76, 1994.

35. Ning, Y. et al., Age-related change of mouse Peyer's patch in scanning electron-microscopic observation and its relation to mucosal immune response, J. Phys. Fit. Nutr. Immunol., 13, 90-101, 2003.

36. Tokuyama, H. and Tokuyama, Y., The regulatory effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on isotypes switching: Retinoic acid induces IgA switch rearrangement in cooperation with IL-5 and inhibits IgG1 switching, Cell. Immunol., 192, 41-47, 1999.

37. Remirez, D., Ledon, N., and Gonzalez, R., Role of histamine in inhibitory effects of phycocyanin in experimental models of allergic inflammatory response, Mediators Inflamm., 11, 81-85, 2002.

38. Romay, C., Ledon, N., and Gonzalez, R., Effects of phycocyanin extract on prostaglandin E2 levels in mouse ear inflammation test, Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, 50 (II), 1106-09, 2000.

39. Gleeson, M., Cripps, A. W., and Clancy, R., Modifiers of the human mucosal immune system, Immunol. Cell Biol., 73, 397-404, 1995.

40. Ishii, K. et al., Influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on IgA level in human saliva, J. KagawaNutr. Univ., 30, 27-33, 1999.

41. Shinohara, K. et al., Algal phycocyanins promote growth of human cells in culture, In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol., 2, 1057-60, 1988.

42. Liu, Y. et al., Inhibitory effect of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on the growth of human leukemia K562 cells., J. Appl. Phycol., 12, 125-30, 2000.

43. Ihle, J. N., Interleukin-3 and hematopoiesis, Chem. Immunol., 51, 65-106, 1992.

44. Valtieri, M. et al., Cytokine-dependent granulocytic differentiation. Regulation of proliferative and differentiative responses in a murine progenitor cell line, J. Immunol., 138, 3829-35, 1987.

45. Zhang, C.-W., Effect of polysaccharide and phycocyanin from Spirulina. on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system of bone marrow in mice, Proceeding of 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology, China, 58, 1994.

46. Vose, J. M. and Armitage, J. O., Clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors, J. Clin. Oncol., 13 (4), 1023-35, 1995.

47. Rao, R. D. et al., Aerosolized granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy in metastatic cancer, Am. J. Clin. Oncol., 26 (5), 493-98, 2003.

48. Sacha, T. et al., The effect of beta-carotene and its derivatives on cytotoxicity, differentiation, proliferative potential and apoptosis on the three human acute leukemia cell lines: U-937, HL-60 and TF-1, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1740, 206-14, 2005.

49. Kobori, M. et al., Effect of non-dialyzable extracts of vegetables on the differentiation of U-937 human myeloid leukemia cell line, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 42(1), 61-68, 1995.

50. Collins, S. J., The role of retinoids and retinoic acid receptors in normal hematopoiesis, Leukemia, 16, 1905-86, 2002.

51. Obermeier, H., Hrboticky, N., and Sellmayer, A., Differential effects of polyunsat-urated fatty acids on cell growth and differentiation of premonocytic U937 cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1266, 179-85, 1995.

52. Hirahashi, T. et al., Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis, Int Immunopharmacol, 2 (4), 423-34, 2002.

53. Annapurna, V. et al., Bioavailability of Spirulina carotenes in preschool children, J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 10, 145-51, 1991.

54. Nakaya, N., Homma, Y., and Goto, Y., Cholesterol lowering effect of Spirulina, Nutrition Reports International, 1329-37, 1988.

55. Kim, W. H. and Park, J. Y., The effect of Spirulina on lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity and immune function in Korean elderlies, Korean J. Nutr., 36 (3), 287-97, 2003.

56. Mao, T. K., Water, V., and Gershwin, M. E., Effect of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients, J. Med. Food, 8 (1), 27-30, 2005.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Weight Loss All Star

Weight Loss All Star

Are you looking to lose weight or even just tone up? What is stopping you from having the body you want and help you feel great at the same time? I created Weight Loss All-Star for all those wanting to lose weight, and keep the weight off. I know how hard it is to do diets and stick with them, and get the motivation to get up and exercise.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment