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Control SP CsA CsA + SP

Control SP CsA CsA + SP

Control SP CsA CsA + SP

Control SP CsA CsA + SP

FIGURE 7.5 Effect of Spirulina (SP) on cyclosporine (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity as measured by (a) plasma urea and (b) plasma creatinine. Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by CsA (50 mg/kg b.w. orally for 14 days) and Spirulina (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, 3 days prior to CsA and continued till end of the experiment. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6), *p < .05 vs. control; **p < .05 vs. CsA.

FIGURE 7.6 Histological examination of rat kidney. Left panel shows cortical region (H&E 60X); (a) Control rat show normal morphology; (b) Cyclosporine-treated rat shows severe isometric vacuolization (indicated by arrow) and widening of interstitium. (c) Csa + Spirulina treated rat show minimal tubular necrosis.

FIGURE 7.6 Histological examination of rat kidney. Left panel shows cortical region (H&E 60X); (a) Control rat show normal morphology; (b) Cyclosporine-treated rat shows severe isometric vacuolization (indicated by arrow) and widening of interstitium. (c) Csa + Spirulina treated rat show minimal tubular necrosis.

ischemia-reperfusion injury through the inhibition of caspase-3 activity125 further suggests that through the inhibition of the apoptotic pathway, Spirulina probably offers protection against the cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity. However, this requires further investigation.

The mechanisms by which oxalate causes deleterious effects on kidneys have not yet been clearly established, however, some of the toxic effects of oxalate have been attributed to the induction of oxidative stress.128 The oxalate-induced membrane lipid peroxidation leads to the loss of renal cell membrane integrity and ultimately calcium

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