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FIGURE 10.3 IL-1 activity in culture supernatant of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with SpHW (From Hayashi, O., J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol, 40, 437, 1994. With permission.) IL-1 activity in each culture supernatant of peritoneal macrophage, 0-CM and SpHW-CM, was measured by thymocyte-proliferation assay in the presence of phytohemagglutinin PHA. IL-1 is positive control.

Data represent means ± SD of three wells. *p < .05 compared to Blank.

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FIGURE 10.3 IL-1 activity in culture supernatant of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with SpHW (From Hayashi, O., J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol, 40, 437, 1994. With permission.) IL-1 activity in each culture supernatant of peritoneal macrophage, 0-CM and SpHW-CM, was measured by thymocyte-proliferation assay in the presence of phytohemagglutinin PHA. IL-1 is positive control.

Data represent means ± SD of three wells. *p < .05 compared to Blank.

proliferation, which was due to their antioxidant activity. They also showed that the total amount of phenol contributing to antioxidant activity in Spirulina was almost five times greater than that of chlorella. Either SpHW or hot-water extract from Chlorella vulgaris (CHW) significantly increased the mitogenicity of spleen cells and/or the number of PFC in in-vitro spleen-cell culture.18 Although major differences were not observed in these activities, some extracts from Spirulina, for example, dialysed substance of SpHW and cell wall substance of Spirulina, increased IL-1 activity in the culture of peritoneal macrophages, whereas induction of IL-1 activity by Chlorella extracts was not significant.18

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium, capable of surviving and multiplying in macrophage-rich organs such as liver and spleen. We expected bactericidal activity in murine macrophages, which were stimulated with Spirulina in in-vivo experiment or in in-vitro culture. In spite of significant induction of IL-1 activity, however, SpHW did not enhance bactericidal activity against L. monocytogenes in the macrophages.19

MUCOSAL IgA RESPONSE IN MICE TREATED WITH SPIRULINA

Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies work as the predominant isotype in most secretory tissues or mucosal surfaces and exhibit various biological properties

Peyer's patch Nondangerous antigens

" Ji* Dangerous pathogens

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