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Cont ova-h2o

OVA-Phyc

FIGURE 10.12 Intestinal vascular permeability in mice treated with phycocyanin for 6 weeks (Adapted from Nemoto-Kawamura, C., J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 50, 134, 2004. With permission.)

Vascular permeability was determined by Evans blue-leakage method. Optical density measured at 637 nm is expressed as means ± SD of 5 mice. *p < .05 compared to Cont and #p < .05 compared to OVA-H2O

ova-h2o

OVA-Phyc

FIGURE 10.12 Intestinal vascular permeability in mice treated with phycocyanin for 6 weeks (Adapted from Nemoto-Kawamura, C., J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 50, 134, 2004. With permission.)

Vascular permeability was determined by Evans blue-leakage method. Optical density measured at 637 nm is expressed as means ± SD of 5 mice. *p < .05 compared to Cont and #p < .05 compared to OVA-H2O

containing phycocyanin not only are useful dietary supplements but also strengthen the defense mechanisms against infectious diseases and also strengthen the protective mechanisms against food allergy and other inflammatory diseases.

INCREASE OF IgA ANTIBODY LEVELS IN HUMANS CUSTOMARILY INGESTING SPIRULINA

We now are gaining an understanding of the possibility of enhancement of mucosal and/or systemic antibody responses, especially in regard to production of IgA antibody in the intestine by continuous ingestion of Spirulina or its extracts involving phycocyanin as shown in Figures 10.8 and 10.10 in animal studies. We then investigated salivary IgA antibody levels in the subjects who ingested commercial Spirulina tablets as a health food in various periods of usage in their daily life. We detected a correlation between the salivary IgA level and the amount of Spirulina ingested. Salivary glands have been recognized as a part of the common mucosal immune system, and saliva has been used by researchers for studies of the influence of various parameters on the human mucosal immune system.39

One hundred and thirty four employees of a manufacturing company, average age; 43.2 ± 12.1 years old (from 20 to 62 years old), were enrolled in the study and asked to offer saliva as specimens and to answer some questionnaires about duration and experience of Spirulina ingestion.40 About 127 saliva specimens from 91 men and 36 women were collected after having obtained consent from each subject. Secreted o o

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