Immune responses are mediated by a variety of cells and soluble molecules or cytokines that are involved in signaling between cells during immune responses in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Macrophages and T and B lymphocytes play a central role in all immune responses, but other cells in the tissues also participate by signaling to the lymphocytes and by responding to the cytokines such as interleukins (ILs) and interferon y (IFN y) (Figure 10.1). Cell-mediated immunity, originally described as localized reactions to organisms such as intracellular pathogens, is mediated by phagocytes and lymphocytes. Humoral immunity, on the contrary, is mediated by antibodies in the circulating blood and lymph. It is not possible entirely, however, to consider cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses separately. Although the environment surrounding us contains a great variety of infectious agents as antigens, most infections in normal individuals are short-lived and leave little permanent damage. This is due to the immune system, which combats infectious agents.1'2
Spirulina (Arthrospira)platensis, which is a helicoidal filamentous blue-green alga or cyanobacterium, has a history of being used as food for more than a 1000 years.3,4 It has been commercially produced for almost 30 years as a human food
Matured T cell T
Matured T cell T
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