Drugs and their reactive metabolites cause toxicity at the organ level in animals including humans. Depending on the nature of a specific drug and its metabolite, the toxicity manifests in one or many target organs. Organ-specific drug toxicities such as hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, cardiotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity, to name a few, have been well recognized. Adverse effects of drugs at the cellular level in an organ lead to cytotoxicity involving cell necrosis and apoptosis. Systemic toxicities of drugs, in association with the organ toxicities including the
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