Method Of Preparation And Composition Of Recipes

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The details of the recipes used for standardization as well as GI are given below. Please make a note that wherever the incorporation of Spirulina is mentioned, it is indicative that in case of standardization, Spirulina was supplemented at three levels in the recipes, namely, 1 g, 2.5 g, and 5 g levels; whereas, for finding the GI, Spirulina was incorporated at the level of 2.5 g.

Plain Paratha with Tomato-Onion Raita: Wheat flour (60 g) was sieved. Spirulina powder was added. Stiff dough was made and was divided into equal balls. These balls were rolled into triangular shapes and fried on both the sides with little oil (10 g used for all parathas) until they turn golden brown in color. This was served with tomato-onion Raita. Raita was prepared by beating the curd (50 g) to a smooth consistency and then adding tomato (30 g), onion (30 g), and 5 g of cumin seeds powder to it.

Methi (Fenugreek) Paratha with Curd: Wheat flour (20 g) and suji (35 g) were sieved together. To this, chopped fenugreek leaves (100 g), green chilli (2.5 g), ginger (2.5 g), cumin seeds powder (2.5 g), salt, and Spirulina powder were added. Mixture was made into soft dough. The dough was divided into small balls and rolled into triangular-shaped chapatis. The chapatis were placed on a hot tava and after a minute, they were turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and it was fried on both the sides until they turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Potato Paratha with Curd: Potatoes (50 g) were boiled, peeled, and mashed. To this, chopped chillies (2.5 g), coriander leaves (2.5 g), dry green mango powder (2.5 g), cumin seeds powder (2.5 g), salt (as per taste), and Spirulina powder were added and mixed well. Wheat flour (50 g) was made into dough. The dough was made into small balls and each small ball was then rolled into small round flat shaped chapati. A spoonful of potato mixture was placed on each chapati and enclosed with another. The ball so formed was dusted with dry flour and rolled out again into medium thick chapati. The chapati was then placed on a hot tava and after a minute, it was turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and it was shallow fried on both sides until it turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Spinach Paratha with Curd: Cauliflower (100 g), ginger (5 g), and green chillies (2.5 g) were grated. All these were added together with salt, dry green mango powder (2.5 g), and cumin seeds powder (2.5 g). This mixture was mixed well and kept aside.

Spinach leaves (50 g) paste was prepared and Spirulina powder was added to it. This was then incorporated into wheat flour and soft dough was made. Dough was divided into small balls and were rolled into small round chapatis. A spoonful of mixture was placed on each chapati and enclosed with another. The chapati was placed on a hot tava and after a minute, it was turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and it was fried on both sides until it turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Mint and Cabbage Stuffed Paratha with Curd: Cabbage (100 g), onion (30 g), and green chillies (2.5 g) were chopped. To this, dry green mango powder (2.5 g), salt, and cumin seeds (2.5 g) were added, mixed well, and kept aside. Mint leaves (50 g) paste was made and Spirulina powder was added to it. Soft wheat flour (25 g) dough was made by adding mint paste and Spirulina powder. Dough was divided into small balls and they were rolled into small chapatis. A spoonful of mixture was placed on each chapati and was enclosed with another. This was placed on a hot tava and after a minute, it was turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and it was fried on both sides until it turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Peas Paratha with Curd: Potatoes (15 g) and peas (50 g) were boiled and mashed. Onion (20 g), green chillies (2.5 g), and coriander leaves (5 g) were chopped, and added to peas and potato mixture. To this, gingelly seeds (5 g), dry green mango powder (2.5 g), and Spirulina powder were added and mixed well. Wheat flour (45 g) was made into a dough. Dough was divided into small balls and were rolled out into small chapatis. A spoonful of mixture was placed on each chapati and enclosed with another. The chapati was placed on a hot tava and after a minute it was turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and it was fried on both the sides until it turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Coriander Paratha with Curd: Coriander leaves (50 g) were chopped. Soft wheat flour (65 g) was made adding coriander leaves, cumin seeds (2.5 g), salt, and Spirulina powder. The dough was divided into small balls and were rolled into triangular-shaped rotis. Each roti was placed on a hot tava and after a minute it was turned on to the other side. Little oil (10 g used for all parathas) was applied, and each roti was fried on both sides until it turn golden brown in color and served with 50 g curd.

Potato Palak with Chapati: Spinach (150 g), garlic (5 g), ginger (5 g), and tomato (20 g) were chopped separately. Potato (50 g) was cut and peeled into equal pieces. Oil (5 g) was heated in a pan and the garlic and ginger were fried until they turn golden brown in color. Potato and palak (spinach) were added along with salt and red chilli. When it was half cooked, tomato and Spirulina powders were added and cooked for sometime. This vegetable was served with rotis/chapatis, which were made using 45 g of whole wheat flour. "Roti" or "Chapati" is an Indian flat bread much like the Mexican Tortilla. Roti is rolled out of unleavened whole wheat dough. The small balls of dough (approximately 15 g each) are rolled out with the help of a rolling pin and then partially cooked on a hot tava or griddle and then finished directly over high heat. The high heat makes the rotis puff up into a ball.

Potato Methi with Chapati: Methi (fenugreek leaves, 100 g) was chopped finely. Onion (30 g) was cut into slices. Potato (20 g) was peeled and cut into equal pieces. Oil (5 g) was heated; onion and cumin seeds (2.5 g) were added and fried until they turn light brown in color. Potato, methi, salt, and red chilli were added. When half cooked, dried green mango powder (2.5 g) and Spirulina powder were added and cooked for some more time. This vegetable was served with rotis/chapatis, which were made using 50 g of whole wheat flour. "Roti" or "Chapati" is an Indian flat bread much like the Mexican Tortilla. Roti is rolled out of unleavened whole wheat dough. The small balls of dough (approximately 15 g each) are rolled out with the help of a rolling pin and then partially cooked on a hot tava or griddle and then finished directly over high heat. The high heat makes the rotis puff up into a ball.

Palak Paneer with Chapati: Palak (Spinach, 100 g) was chopped and the paste was made in a mixer with Spirulina powder. Tomato (30 g), garlic (10 g), and ginger (10 g) were chopped separately. Oil (5 g) was heated in a pan. Cumin seeds (2.5 g), ginger, and garlic were added and fried until they turn dark brown in color. Tomato, salt, and red chillies were added and fried until the oil left the sides of the pan. Spinach and Spirulina powders along with paneer pieces (25 g) were cooked for 10 min. This vegetable was served with rotis/chapatis, which were made using 60 g of whole wheat flour. "Roti" or "Chapati" is an Indian flat bread much like the Mexican Tortilla. Roti is rolled out of unleavened whole wheat dough. The small balls of dough (approximately 15 g each) are rolled out with the help of a rolling pin and then partially cooked on a hot tava or griddle and then finished directly over high heat. The high heat makes the rotis puff up into a ball.

Dudhi Kofta with Chapati: Dudhi (bottlegourd, 100 g) was grated and water was squeezed out. Ginger (2.5 g), coriander leaves (5 g), onion (30 g), and tomato (30 g) were finely chopped and added separately. Grated dudhi, Bengal gram flour (22 g), Spirulina powder, salt, dry green mango powder (2.5 g), and ginger were mixed well and made into a stiff dough. Equal balls were made out of this and deep fried in oil until they turn dark brown in color. Oil (20 g) was heated, cumin seeds (2.5 g) were added, and onions were fried until they turn dark brown in color. Tomato, salt, and red chillies were added and fried till the oil left the sides of the pan. Some water was added and the koftas were added and cooked for 2-3 min. This vegetable was served with rotis/chapatis, which were made using 40 g of whole wheat flour. "Roti" or "Chapati" is an Indian flat bread much like the Mexican Tortilla. Roti is rolled out of unleavened whole wheat dough. The small balls of dough (approximately 15 g each) are rolled out with the help of a rolling pin and then partially cooked on a hot tava or griddle and then finished directly over high heat. The high heat makes the rotis puff up into a ball.

Methi Rice with Curd: Oil (10 g) was heated in a pan. Onion (20 g), ginger (5 g), and green chillies (2.5 g) were chopped. They were fried until they turn light brown in color. Chopped methi (fenugreek leaves, 100 g) and washed rice (50 g) were added with equal amount of water. Spirulina powder was added and mixed well. This mixture was cooked in pressure cooker till done and it was garnished with chopped tomatoes (20 g) and served with curd (50 g).

Coriander Rice with Potato Raita: Coriander leaves paste (50 g) was prepared. Oil (5 g) was heated in a pan and chopped green chill (2.5 g) and ginger (2.5 g) were added and fried until they turn brown in color. Washed rice (50 g) was added with equal amount of water. Spirulina powder was added and cooked till done.

Potato Raita: Potatoes (25 g) were boiled and mashed properly. Curd (50 g) was whipped and mashed potatoes along with salt and cumin seed powder (2.5 g) were added.

Vegetable Pulao with Curd: Vegetables (10 g potato, 20 g peas, 20 g carrot, and 20 g cauliflower) were cut into small pieces. When oil (5 g) was hot two cloves were added. Sliced onions (20 g) were added and fried until they turn dark brown in color. All the vegetables were added and were fried with rice (50 g) for 1 min. Spirulina powder was added with equal amount of water and cooked in pressure cooker till done, garnished with chopped tomato (20 g), and served with curd (50 g).

Spinach Raita with Onion Rice: Potatoes (10 g) were sliced and fried in half teaspoon oil and taken out when they turn light brown in color. Some more oil (2.5 g) was taken and sliced onions (20 g) and ginger (2.5 g) were fried until they turn light brown in color. Washed rice (50 g) was added with equal amount of water and cooked in pressure cooker till done.

Spinach Raita: Spinach paste (100 g) was made and Spirulina powder was added to this paste. Curd (50 g) was whipped and the paste was added along with salt and cumin seed powder (2.5 g).

Muthia: Rice (35 g), Bengal gram dal (15 g), and red gram dal (15 g) were coarsely powdered. To this, chopped fenugreek leaves (30 g), sugar (1.5 g), salt, and Spirulina powder were added. Stiff dough was made with the help of curd. Dough was divided into equal oblong rolls. They were steamed for 30 min till done. The rolls were then cut into small equal pieces. Oil was heated in a pan and gingelly seeds (2 g) were added and the pieces were shallow fried for 2 min.

Dhebra: Methi leaves (25 g) were chopped. Bajra flour (40 g) and wheat flour (25 g) were sieved. Chopped methi, curd (15 g), sugar (2.5 g), salt, gingelly seeds (2.5 g), and Spirulina powder were added. Mixture was made into a soft dough. Dough was divided into small balls and rolled into chapatis. Each chapati was shallow fried in a pan until it turn golden brown in color.

Samosa: Potatoes (50 g) were boiled, peeled, and mashed. Carrot (15 g) was grated, and onion (15 g), green chillies (2.5 g), and coriander leaves (5 g) were chopped. Chopped onion was fried in 3 ml oil. Green chillies, cumin seeds (2.5 g), mango powder (2.5 g), mashed potatoes, carrot, and peas (20 g) were added and cooked for 2 min. Spirulina powder was then added and mixed well. Wheat flour refined (40 g) was mixed with a pinch of salt and made into soft dough. The dough was divided into small balls and were rolled into thin chapatis, each chapati cut into two halves and twisted into a cone. A spoonful of mixture was filled into each cone and enclosed with the help of water. The cones were deep fried in hot oil (20 g oil for consumed while frying) until the cones turn brown in color uniformly on all the sides.

Matar Chop: Potatoes (90 g) and peas (100 g) were boiled and mixed well. To this, arrowroot flour (5 g), dry green mango powder (2.5 g), sugar (5 g), green chilli (2.5 g), coriander leaves (5 g), and chopped ginger (2.5 g) were added. Spirulina powder was added and mixed well. Half teaspoon oil was heated in a pan and gingelly seeds (2 g) and dry coconut (10 g) was added. To this, potato and peas mixture was added and fried for 1 min. From this, equal balls were made. Oil (20 g oil for consumed while frying) was heated in a pan. Balls were deep fried.

Vegetable Cutlets: Potatoes (50 g) were boiled, peeled, and mashed. Carrot (20 g) was grated and coriander leaves (5 g), onion (20 g), ginger (2.5 g), and green chillies (2.5 g) were chopped finely. All this was mixed with cumin seeds (2.5 g), dry green mango powder (2.5 g), salt, and Spirulina powder well. Bread was soaked in water for 1 min and squeezed out. Bread (50 g) was mixed well with the above mixture. Mixture was divided into equal parts and made into oval shape. Bread crumb powder was sprinkled on each piece and deep fried in hot oil (20 g oil for consumed while frying) until they turn brown in color.

Methi Wada: Methi (50 g), green chillies (2.5 g), and ginger (2.5 g) were chopped. These were added to Bengal gram flour (75 g) along with gingelly seeds (2 g), salt, dry green mango powder (2.5 g), and Spirulina powder. All these were mixed with enough water and made into stiff dough. Small balls of this mixture were then deep fried in oil (20 g oil for consumed while frying) until they turn brown in color.

Biscuits: Sugar (15 g) was powdered and sieved along with whole wheat flour (22.5 g), refined wheat flour (22.5 g), baking powder, and Spirulina powder. Butter (20 g) was added and the mixture was made into medium stiff dough, then vanilla essence was added. The dough was divided into five balls and flattened slightly, and baked in an oven for around 40 min at 150°C.

Rice: Spirulina powder (2.5 g) was added to rice (64 g). Oil (5 g), salt (as per taste), and green chillies (as per taste) were added to improve the palatability. It was then pressure cooked with equal amount of water till done.

Rice with Green Gram Dal: Spirulina powder (2.5 g) was added to rice (45 g) and green gram dal (25 g). Oil (5 g), salt (as per taste), and green chillies (as per taste) were added to improve the palatability. It was then pressure cooked with equal amount of water till done.

Rice with Red Gram Dal: Spirulina powder (2.5 g) was added to rice (45 g) and red gram dal (26 g). Oil (5 g), salt (as per taste), and green chillies (as per taste) were added to improve the palatability. It was then pressure cooked with equal amount of water till done.

Rice with Peas: Spirulina powder (2.5 g) and peas green (27 g) were added to rice (45 g). Oil (5 g), salt (as per taste), and green chillies (as per taste) were added to improve the palatability. It was then pressure cooked with equal amount of water till done.

Regional Meals Punjab Meal

1. Dal Makhani: Rajmah (15 g) and whole black gram (10 g) were soaked together for about 8 h in 200 ml of water and then pressure cooked for 12 min. Onions (25 g), tomatoes (30 g), ginger (2 g), and garlic (2 g) were chopped finely. In hot oil (5 g), chopped onions were fried until they turn golden brown in color. Chopped tomatoes, ginger, and garlic were added to make smooth gravy. Cooked legumes were added along with turmeric powder (one-fourth tsp), chilli powder (one-fourth tsp), and some garam masala (one-fourth tsp), and cooked for another 15 min on slow fire. Before removing from the fire, ghee (5 g) was added.

2. Brinjal Bhurta: Brinjal (80 g) was roasted on direct flame until the outer skin blackened. The skin was removed and the brinjal mashed. Onions (30 g), tomatoes (20 g), ginger (2 g), garlic (2 g), and one green chilli were chopped finely. In hot oil (10 g), the ingredients were fried. Turmeric (one-fourth tsp) and salt (according taste) were added and fried. Mashed brinjal (80 g) was added, mixed well, and cooked for 5 min. After removing from the fire, chopped coriander (5 g) was added.

3. Phulka: "Phulka", "Roti" or "Chapati" is an Indian flat bread much like the Mexican tortilla. Roti is rolled out of unleavened whole wheat dough. The small balls of dough (approximately 15 g each) are rolled out with the help of a rolling pin and then partially cooked on a hot tava or griddle and then finished directly over high heat. The high heat makes the phulka puff up into a ball.

Gujarati Whole Meal

1. Kichadi: Red gram rice (20 g) was soaked for 8 h. In hot oil (5 g), one broken red chilli and a few mustard seeds were added. After the seeds crackled, rice (50 g) and red gram dal (20 g) were added and fried. Salt (according to taste), turmeric (one-fourth tsp), and about 140 ml of water were added and pressure cooked for 8 min. Ghee (2.5 g) was added before serving.

2. Kadhi: Curd (65 g) was beaten well after adding water. A paste of ginger (2 g) and chilli (2 g) was made and added to the curd (65 g) along with Bengal gram flour (5 g) and mixed well to make a smooth paste. In hot oil (2.5 g), cumin seeds (1), one cinnamon, one clove, and one pepper were tempered and poured in the Kadhi. Kadhi was allowed to cook for 10 min after the addition of 5 g of jaggery with constant stirring.

3. Potato Bhaji: Potatoes (65 g) were boiled in their jackets and the skin was peeled off on cooling. They were diced and kept aside. In hot oil (7.5 g), mustard seeds (1 g) were added. On crackling, green chilli, salt, and turmeric as per taste were added and fried. Diced potatoes were added and cooked for 5 min.

Bengali Meal

1. Fried Fish: Fish (80 g) was cleaned and washed thoroughly. After adding salt as per taste and turmeric (one-fourth tsp) to the fish, it was kept aside for 20 min. Mustard oil (5 g) was heated and the fish (80 g) was fried until it was golden brown on both sides. It was served with some lemon slices.

2. Dal: Green gram dal (25 g) was roasted to a light brown color and then pressure cooked with salt as per taste. Mustard oil (2.5 g) and ghee (2.5 g) were heated and cumin seeds (1 g), one bay leaf, one red chilli, and grated ginger (2 g) were tempered. Cooked dal (25 g) was added with turmeric (one-fourth tsp) and sugar (2 g), and simmered for 5 min. Grated coconut (5 g) was added and then removed from the fire.

3. Charchari: Peeled potato (20 g) and sweet potato (20 g) were cut into cubes. Brinjal (40 g) was cut into even sized pieces. In hot mustard oil (10 g), one broken red chilli, one slit green chilli, and 2 g mixture of mustard seeds, onion seeds, and cumin seeds were tempered. Vegetables were added and sauted. Salt (as per taste), sugar (1 g), turmeric (one-fourth tsp), and 100 ml of water were added to cook the vegetables. It was covered with a lid and allowed to cook, until the vegetables were tender and water was absorbed.

4. Rice: Rice (55 g) was washed and pressure cooked in double quantity of water with salt for 5-7 min.

South Indian Meal

1. Rice: Rice (55 g) was washed and pressure cooked in double quantity of water with salt for 5-7 min.

2. Sambhar: Red gram dal (20 g) was pressure cooked in 100 ml of water for 5-7 min. Tamarind (10 g) was soaked in about 25-30 ml water for 30 min and the juice was extracted. Brinjal (10 g) and tomato (10 g) were cubed and onion was finely chopped. In hot oil (5 g), mustard seeds (30 g), one red chilli, two curry leaves, and a pinch of asafetida were added and after it spluttered, vegetables were added and sauteed for a few minutes. The tamarind juice was added and brought to a boil. Cooked dal with water, salt (as per taste), and sambhar powder (5 g) were added and brought to a boil.

3. Cabbage Curry: Cabbage (100 g) was finely chopped and fresh coconut (20 g) was grated. To hot oil (10 g), mustard seeds (3 g), black gram dal (2.5 g), and cabbage were added and allowed to cook on a low flame. Water was sprinkled and the vegetables were stirred from time to time. After cabbage was cooked, salt (as per taste) and chilli powder (2 g) were added, and the vegetable was garnished with fresh coconut.

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