O

FIGURE 12.4 Linoleic acid.

is attributable mainly to the ultrapure GLA standard. Of the two linolenic acids, the antimicrobial activity has been established for a-linolenic acid (ALA) originating from Limnothrix redekei HUB 051 (Oscillatoria redekei),2 while linolenic acid and linoleic acids excreted by cultures of Phormidium tenue caused autolysis of cells.115,116 Mundt et al. (2001) determined that the minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of the isolated a-linolenic acid against Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11 was 75 ^g/mL and against Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16 was 25 ^g/mL. A concentration of a-linolenic acid of 500 ^g/filter disk was also effective against multiresistent Staphylococcus strains and inhibition zones from 10 to 20 mm were measured.

Mundt et al. (2003) reported that antimicrobial effect of linoleic acid (Figure 12.4) isolated from Oscillatoria redekei inhibited the growth of some Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11 for linoleic acid was 100 ^g/mL.

A study on the antimicrobial effect of fatty acids demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect is far more significant in those connected in straight chain fatty acids, rather than isomer fatty acids.117 In the ester group of fatty acids composed with 6-18 carbons, a significant antimicrobial effect was observed in glycerol caprylate (Ci0), glycerol laurate (Ci2), and glycerol myristate (Ci4) against bacteria, yeasts, and molds.118-120 The strength of the antimicrobial effect of the fatty acids with 18 carbons and glycerol laurate (C12) against Bacillus cereus was in the order of stearic < oleic < lauric < glycerol laurate < linolenic acid.121 Also, ALA from the unicellular chlorophytes Chlorococcum sp. HS-101 and Dunaliella primoluta were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus strains.122 Likewise, the relative MIC values with reference to the bacterial strains revealed antibacterial potential of the GLA. In such comparisons, ALA from Limnothrix redekei active against S. aureus (MIC 75 ^g/mL)28 is 18-fold less toxic than GLA from Fischerella sp. (MIC ^g/mL), although, the bacterial strains were not the same in each study.

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