The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Spirulina in humans have not been thoroughly investigated. However, the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in Spirulina are digested, absorbed, and metabolized by the humans upon oral consumption. Spirulina can be consumed at a dose of 3-20 g/day without manifestation of any adverse effects.91 Studies on the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity and mutagenicity of Spirulina have revealed no specific body or organ toxicity or genotoxicity.92,93 Studies in animals fed with large quantities of Spirulina have shown that the alga is neither toxic nor causes adverse health effects.94 Dietary ingestion of very high levels of Spirulina during pregnancy has not caused any fetal abnormalities or birth defects.95 Independent feeding tests have shown no toxic or adverse effects in the humans, rats, pigs, and chickens.92,96,97 Feeding experiments with rats conducted in Japan have revealed no acute or chronic toxicity or reproductive toxicity of Spirulina.94 To date, there are no drug interactions reported with Spirulina. The United Nations Organization (UNO) has recommended Spirulina as the ideal food for mankind and the World Health Organization (WHO) has also declared Spirulina as a safe food with excellent nutritional value.
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