Myeloid DC

Microbial _ cytokines

Cellular immunity

Myeloid DC

Possible effectors

FIGURE 9.2 Spirulina extract induces maturation of myeloid dendritic cells through pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Spirulina contains a ligand that activates a putative PRR on dendritic cells. The PRR drives the dendritic cells to activate NK cells (gray arrows). Thus, NK cells are indirectly activated by another constituent of Spirulina. If a TLR ligand is simultaneously provided for dendritic cell maturation, the TLR is activated to confer CTL inducing abilities on the dendritic cells (white arrows). TLR ligands also induces IL-6, which activates TH17 cells.

activation of NK by Spirulina and indirect ways mainly through Spirulina-mediated dendritic cell activation.6

A hot water extract of Spirulina has been orally administered to patients as an anticancer and antiviral agent. Several reports supported the efficiency of oral administration of Spirulina for retardation of tumor progression in mice with tumor burden.7 Tumor regressed in parallel with NK activation in mice.6 In this review, we focus on the function of Spirulina as an NK-activating agent and introduce its potential for clinical application.

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