1. Geitler, L. (1932) Cyanophyceae. In: Rabenhorst's Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Ostereiich nd der Scheweiz, Vol. 14, pp. 916-931, Akad Verlag, Leipzig.

2. Gomont, M. (1892) Monographie des Oscillatoriees. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Botanique). Series 7, 15: 91-264.

3. Guglielmi, G., Rippka, R. and Tandaeau De Marsac, N. (1993) Main properties that justify the different taxonomic position of Spirulina spp. and Arthrospira spp. among cyanobacteria. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco, 12: 13-23.

4. Tomaselli, L. (1997) Morphology, ultrastructure and taxonomy of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima and Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. In: Vonshak, A. (Ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell Biology,and Biotechnology, pp. 1-19, Taylor and Francis Ltd. London.

5. Cohen, Z. and Vonshak, A. (1991) Fatty acid composition of Spirulina and Spirulina-like cyanobacteria in relation to their chemotaxonomy. Phytochemistry 30: 205.

6. Nelissen, B., Wilmotte, A., De Baere, R., Haes, F., Van De Peer, Y., Neefs, J. M. and De Wachter, R. (1992) Phylogenetic study of cyanobacteria on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Belg. J. Bot. 125: 210-213.

7. Scheldeman, P., Baurain, D., Bouhy, R., Scott, M., Whitton, BA, Belay, A. and Wilmotte, A. (1999) Arthrospira (Spirulina) strains from four continents are resolved into only two clusters, based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the internally transcribed spacer. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 172(2): 213-222.

8. Baurain, D., Renquin, L., Grubisic, S., Scheldeman, P., Belay, A. and Wilmotte, A. (2002) Remarkable conservation of internally transcribed spacer sequences of Arthrospira ("Spirulina") (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria) strains from four continents and of recent and 30-year-old dried samples from Africa. J. Phycol. 38: 384-393.

9. Mühling, M., Sommerfield, P. J., Harris, N., Belay, A. and Whitton, B. A. (2006) Phenotypic analysis of Arthrospira (Spirulina) strains (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 45: 148-157.

10. Boone, D. R. and Castenholz, R. W. [Eds] (2001) The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Springer Verlag, New York.

11. Schopf, J. W. (1993) Microfossils of the early Archean Apex chert: new evidence of the antiquity of life. Science 260: 64-646.

12. Schopf, J. W. (2000) The fossil record: tracing the roots of the cyanobacterial lineage. In: Whitton, B. and Potts, M. (Eds) The Ecology of Cyanobacteria Their Diversity in Time and Space, pp. 13-35, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

13. Castenholz, R. W. (1992) Species usage, concept and evolution in the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). J. Phycol. 28: 737-745.

14. Jassby, A. (1988a) Spirulina: A model for microalgae as human food. In: Lembi, C. A. and Waaland, J. R. (Eds) Algae and Human Affairs, pp. 149-179, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

15. Cifferi, 0. (1983) Spirulina, the edible microorganism. Microbiol. Rev. 47: 551.

16. Farrar, W. V. (1966) Tecuitlatl: a glimpse of Aztec food technology. Nature 211: 341-342.

Dangeard, P. (1940) Sur une algue bleue alimentaire pour l'homme: Arthrospira platensis (Nordst.) Gomont. Actes Soc. Linn. Boreaux Extr. Proces-verbaux, 91: 39. Leonard, J. (1966) The 1964-1865 Belgian Trans-Saharan expedition. Nature 209: 126-128.

Leonard, J. and Compare, P. (1967) Spirulina platensis (Gom) Geitl., algue bleue de grande valeur alimentaire par sa richeseen proteins. Bull. Jard. Bot.nat. Belg. 37: 3-23.

Abdulquader, G., Barsanti, L. andTredici, M. (2000) Harvest of Arthrospira platensis from Lake Kossorom (Chad) and its household usage among the Kanembu. J. Appl. Phycol. 12: 493-498.

Vareschi, E. (1978) The ecology of Lake Nakuru (Kenya) I. Abundance and feeding of the lesser flamingo. Oecologia 32: 11-35.

Talling, J. F., Wood, R. B., Prosser, M. V. and Baxter, R. M. (1973) The upper limit of photosynthetic productivity by phytoplankton: evidence from Ethiopian soda lakes. Freshwater Biol. 3: 53-56.

Kebede, E. and Ahlgren, G. (1996) Optimum growth conditions and light utilization efficiency of Spirulina platensis (= Arthrospira fusiformis) (Cyanophyta) from Lake Chitu, Ethiopia. Hydrobiologia 332: 99-109.

Belay, A. (1997) Mass culture of Spirulina outdoors: The Earthrise Farms experience. In: Vonshak, A. (Ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-Biology and Biotechnology, pp. 131-158, Taylor & Francis Ltd, London. Richmond, A. (2004) Biological principles of mass cultivation. In: Richmond, A. (Ed) Handbook of Microalgal Culture, pp. 125-177, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, USA. Lee, Y. K. (2001) Microalgal mass culture systems and methods: Their limitation and potential. J. Appl. Phycol. 13: 307-315.

Shimamatsu, H. (2004) Mass production of Spirulina, an edible microalga. Hydrobiologia 512: 39-44.

Borowitzka, M. (2005) Culturing microalgae in outdoor ponds. In: Anderson, R. (Ed) Algal Culturing Techniques, pp. 205-218, Elsevier Academic Press, New York. Dodd, J. C. (1986) Elements of pond design and construction. In: Richmond, A. (Ed), CRC Handbook of Microalgal Mass Culture, pp. 265-283. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Oswald, W. J. (1988) Large-scale algal culture systems (engineering aspects). In: Borowitzka, M. A. and Borowitzka, L. J. (Eds) Micro-algal Biotechnology, pp. 357-398, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shimamatsu, H. (1987) A pond for edible Spirulina production and its hydraulic studies. Hydrobiologia 151/152: 83-89.

Zarouk, C. (1966) Contribution a l'etude d'une cyanophycee. Influence de divers facteurs physiques et chimiques sur la croissance et la photosynthese de Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gardner) Geitler, PhD thesis, University of Paris, France. Vonshak, A. (1997) Outdoor mass production of Spirulina: The basic concept. In: Vonshak, A. (Ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell Biology, and Biotechnology, pp. 79-99, Taylor and Francis Ltd. London.

Dillon, J. C. andPhan, P.A. (1993) Spirulina as a source of proteins in human nutrition. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco. 12: 103-107.

US FDA (1998) Bacteriological Analytical Manual. 8th ed. AOAC International, Gaithensburg, Maryland.

Jassby, A. (1988b) Spirulina: A model for microalgae as human food. In: Lembi, C. A. and Waaland, J. R. (Eds) Algae and Human Affairs, pp. 181-202, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

37. Lacquerbe, B., Busson, F. and Maigrot, M. (1970) On the mineral composition of two cyanophytes, Spirulina platensis (Gom) Geitler and S. geitleri J. de Toni, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Ser. D 270: 2130.

38. Johnson, P. E. and Shubert, L. E. (1986a) Availability of iron to rats from Spirulina, a blue-green alga. Nutr. Res. 6: 85-94.

39. Johnson, P. E. and Shubert, L. E. (1986b) Accumulation of mercury and other elements by Spirulina (Cyanophyceae). Nutr. Rep. Int. 34: 1063-1070.

40. Slotton, D. G., Goldman, C. R. and Franke, A. (1989) Commercially-grown Spirulina. found to contain low levels of mercury and lead. Nutr. Rep. Int. 40: 1165-1172.

41. AOAC (1990a) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed, Helrich, K. (Ed), p. 372, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington.

42. AOAC (1990b) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed, First (Suppl), Helrich, K. (Ed), p.17, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington.

43. Belay, A., Kato, T. and Ota, Y. (1996) Spirulina (Arthrospira): potential application as an animal feed supplement. J. Appl. Phycol. 8: 303-311.

44. Carmichael, W. W. (1994). The toxins of cyanobacteria. Sci. Am. 78-86.

45. An, J. and Carmichael, W. W. (1996). Technical booklet for the microalgae biomass industry: detection of microcystins and nodularins using an enzyme linked immun-osorbant assay (ELISA)and a protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Dayton, OH.

46. Henrikson, R. (1997) Earthfood Spirulina, p. 187, Renore Enterprises, Inc., Kenwood, California.

47. Lee, Y. K. (1997) Commercial production of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific rim. J. Appl. Phycol. 9: 403-411.

48. Wu, B., Xiang, W. and Tseng, C. K. (1998) Spirulina cultivation in China. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 16 (Suppl): 152-157.

49. Belay, A., Kato, T. and Ota, Y. (1996) Spirulina (Arthrospira): potential application as an animal feed supplement. J. Appl. Phycol. 8: 303-311.

50. Belay, A. (2002) The potential application of Spirulina. (Arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. J. Am. Nutraceut. Assoc. 5(2): 27-48.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment