Spirulina and Drug-Induced Oxidative Damage
There are various drugs causing nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity through the free radical generation mechanism. Among them, cyclosporine (CsA)-induced neph-rotoxicity, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity present considerable clinical challenge. CsA, gentamicin, and cisplatin cause a dose-related decrease in renal function in experimental animals and humans.34 The generation of ROS has been implicated in nephrotoxicity induced by these drugs.35 Pretreatment with Spirulina protected the rats from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by attenuation of decrease in creatinine clearance (Figure 5.5). The protection of renal function was coupled with prevention in the rise in kidney tissue malondialdehyde levels and enhancement of renal glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Figure 5.6). The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis.36 In another study, the doxorubicin-induced enhancement of ROS in cells as measured by the 2/,7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence was markedly reduced by pretreatment of phycocyanin/Spirulina.36,37
Systemic and oral administration of some metals leads to the initiation of oxidative damage. Lead (100 ppm) given in doubly deionized water for 30 days, oral administration of cadmium (6 mg/kg) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 30 days, intraperitoneal administration of HgCl2 (50 mg/kg) resulted in a significant increase in thiobarbit-uric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide and a decrease in the levels of copper, zinc, iron, selenium, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase when compared to normal control.38,39 Administration of Spirulina produced a well-pronounced protective effect in respect
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