TABLE 25 Continued

Effects against Animals

Other effects Rats

Rats

Rats

Mice

Rats

Fish

Mice

Humans

Methods and results summary

Alterations in serum and liver enzymes such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase of rats fed on diets with hexachlorocyclohexane were improved by diets with 0.0628 and 3.18% Spirulina, added as a retinol supplement.

Spirulina (1500 mg/kg) decreased the liver, lung, and kidney malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide levels, in lead treated animals showing antioxidant activity.

Spirulina (1500 mg/kg) included in the diet prevented lipid peroxidation and restored endogenous antioxidant contents to normal levels in the liver, lungs, heart, and kidneys of animals exposed to lead. The alga prevented lead deposition in the brain.

Spirulina intake by a 6-month old mice for 28 days decreased hematological damage induced by ultraviolet (UVC)-irradiation.

Spirulina (500 mg/kg) in combination with Liv-52 showed protective effects against biochemical parameters and histopathological changes caused by cadmium in the liver and kidneys.

Spirulina feed improved tolerance of Poecilia reticulate to an azo dye methyl red expressed by a substantial decrease in the cytotoxic effects of red blood cells and a lower mortality rate at higher dye concentrations.

Spirulina (800 mg/kg) given pre- and post-treatment with HgCl2 significantly modified mercury induced biochemical alterations such as increased alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, serum iron and calcium levels, lipid peroxidation and blood glutathione levels. The alga relieved deleterious reactive oxygen species or lipid peroxides responsible for Hg-induced toxicity.

Spirulina extract (250 mg) plus zinc (2 mg), twice daily for 16 weeks may be useful in the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning with melanosis and keratosis. The treatment resulted in strongly increased urinary arsenic excretion and removal of hair.

Reference

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