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Spirulina Antitoxic Effects

Effects against Animals Methods and results summary Reference

Cardiotoxicity Mice Oral pretreatment with Spirulina (250 mg/kg) 99

protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic effects as evidenced by lower mortality rates, less ascites, lower peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme normalization, and minimal damage to the heart (shown by ultrastructural studies). This effect could be due to the presence of antioxidant components.

Rats C-phycocyanin (10 ^M) and Spirulina (50 ^g/mL) 100

attenuated the doxorubicin-induced reactive species formation, Bax expression, and cytochrome C release, while increasing caspase-3 activity, improving oxidative stress, and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

Hepatotoxicity Rat A preventive effect of Spirulina (5% in the diet) on the 101

fructose-induced increase of liver triglyceride levels was seen together with an elevation of phospholipid concentrations in this tissue and a decreased plasma cholesterol level. It was concluded that Spirulina contain one or several factors affecting triglyceride accumulation.

Rats A 5% Spirulina diet prevented the fatty liver induced by 102

CHQ4. Liver triacylglycerols and cholesterol levels were lower that those in control rats. Hepatoprotective effects were related to its antioxidant activity.

Rats Intraperitoneal pretreatment with phycocyanin from 87

Spirulina (200 mg/kg) resulted in reduced hepatotoxicity caused by CHG4 and R-(+)-pulegone. The mechanism may involve some cytochrome P450 reactions, in producing reactive metabolites.

Mice When Spirulina (10%) was added to the diet and given 103

two weeks prior to simvastatin, it induced onset of fatty liver; a hypercholesterolemic diet and 20% ethanol decreased total liver lipids, mainly triacylglycerols, and increased serum lactate deshidrogenase (LDH) levels.

Rats After being treated with CHG4, total liver lipids and 88

triacylglycerols decreased in rats fed on a diet with defatted Spirulina or oil fractions (5%). In addition, rats receiving whole Spirulina in their diet showed an increased HDL rate, while the levels in liver microsomal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased.

TABLE 2.5 Continued

Effects against

Animals

Genotoxicity

Mice

Mice

Mice and dogs

Cells

Mice

Mice

Nephrotoxicity Rats

Methods and results summary

Reference

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