Teratogenesis testing is an important aspect of subchronic testing. Teratogenesis may be defined as the onset of developmental abnormalities at any time between zygote formation and postnatal maturation. The embryo development stage most susceptible to adverse influences is organogenesis.69

Although mutations occurring in germ cells may lead to abnormalities in neonates, teratogenicity is normally confined to the effect of foreign agents on somatic cells within either the developing embryo or fetus to be distinguished from inherited defects.70

The teratogenic study with Spirulina was conducted in rats, mice and hamsters. Spirulina was given at various stages during gestation and all females were killed 2 days before the day set for the birth of offspring. Live and dead fetuses and embryo resorptions were counted. Fetuses were weighed and examined for external, skeletal, and visceral malformations.71-73

As shown in Table 2.3 Spirulina given during different gestation periods did not affect embryo development or produce embryo resorptions in any of the species studied.

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