Usa

HHS/FDAb

USA ATSDRc

Health Canada: Spirulinad UN (WHO/FAO): JECFAe

10 mcg/person/day 4.1 mcg/person/day 0.5 mcg/person/day No data (carcinogen) (reproductive (reproductive toxicity)

No data

0.3 mcg/kg/d (chronic) < 0.14 mcg/kg bw/d 2 mcg/kg bw/d

55 mcg/person/d

1 mcg/kg/day toxicity)

25 mcg/person/d (pregnancy)

75 mcg/person/d (adults)

Not determined

EU (foodstuff)

commission regulations1

No legislation in force (UK: 1 ppm in food)

1 ppm (action level for methyl Hg)

(chronic) <0.29 mcg/kg bw/d 0.23 mcg/kg/d (methyl Hg) 0.1 mcg/kg/d (methyl Hg in pregnancy) 0.71 mcg/kg/d

a California Proposition 65 Safe Harbor Levels. www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/pdf/Aug2006StatusReport.pdf b United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA): www.fda.gov The Cd and Pb values are suggested daily maximum intakes.

c The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The data refer to the Minimum Risk Levels (MRLs) for chronic exposure. www.atsdr.cdc.gov/

d Health Canada Compendium of Monographs Table 1A: Specifications template for finished products of a plant, plant material, alga, fungus, or bacterium. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/prodnatur/compendium_mono_e.pdf e United Nation's Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has established Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI) for various heavy metals. The values in this table have been converted to daily amounts. www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/en/

f European Union: http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/chemicalsafety/contaminants/cadmium_en.htm

by Johnson and Shubert.38,39 A subsequent but rarely quoted study by Slotton et al.40 has shown that the prior studies by Johnson and Shubert using inductively coupled plasma detection technology (ICAP) were faulted because of interference from iron. Using cold vapor atomic absorption and graphite furnace atomic absorption techniques that avoid iron interference, Slotton et al. found that the mercury levels reported by Johnson and Shubert were two orders of magnitude higher, whereas those reported for lead were an order of magnitude higher. Unsafe mercury levels in Spirulina have never been reported by any other researchers or independent testing laboratories.

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