Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course

Human Anatomy And Physiology Premium Course

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Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the Internal Environment

The goal of physiology is to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for the origin, development, and progression of life. Each type of life, from the simple virus to the largest tree or the complicated human being, has its own functional characteristics. Therefore, the vast field of physiology can be divided into viral physiology, bacterial physiology, cellular physiology, plant physiology, human physiology, and many more subdivisions. Human Physiology. In human physiology, we attempt to explain the specific characteristics and mechanisms of the human body that make it a living being. The very fact that we remain alive is almost beyond our control, for hunger makes us seek food and fear makes us seek refuge. Sensations of cold make us look for warmth. Other forces cause us to seek fellowship and to reproduce. Thus, the human being is actually an automaton, and the fact that we are sensing, feeling, and knowledgeable beings is part of this automatic sequence of...

Complexity of Primary Afferent Effects

Human physiology texts describe some of the common connections between primary afferents and motoneurons, serving the stretch reflex, the flexor withdrawal reflex, the inverse myotatic reflex, and so forth. What is not usually addressed is that these are simple paths surrounded by extremely complex additional projections of those afferents to other motoneurons and interneurons of the spinal cord (Baldissera, Hultborn, & Illert, 1981), and powerful modulating inputs onto those paths from spinal interneuronal pools (Jankowska, 1992 Pierrot-Deseilligny, Morin, Bergego, & Tankov, 1981 Brooke et al., 1997). It is clear that specific somatosensory receptor discharge can have widespread effects over neuronal pools of the spinal cord and brain and that the strength of the effect can be modulated from profound to minimal (Brooke et al., 1997).

Semantic Web Approach to Data Integration

In the life science domain, the pathway exchange standard called BioPAX (http ) has been deployed in OWL to standardize the ontological representation of pathway data 37 . Increasingly, pathway databases including HumanCyc 38 and Reactome 8 have exported data in the OWL-based BioPAX format. As another example, the FungalWeb Project 39 has integrated a variety of distributed resources in the domain of fungal enzymology into a single OWL DL ontology which serves as an instantiated knowledgebase allowing complex domain specific A-box queries using DL based reasoning tools. In contrast 40 have translated a single large scale taxonomy of human anatomy from a frame-based format into OWL which supports reasoning tasks.

Prospects For The Future

Isolation of pluripotent cells from the human opens the way to study the processes of human embryology without resort to human embryos. Comparative analysis of human and mouse ES cell differentiation will allow the generality of these concepts to mammalian development to be explored. The availability of an unlimited source of untransformed human cells with genomic alterations of predicted therapeutic value presents opportunities for greater understanding of human physiology and disease and is likely to underpin the development of novel cell and genetic therapies for correction of currently intractable disease states.

Cardiomyocyte Dimensions and Contractile Function

Since myocardial tissue from trained humans is not easily available, data at the cellular level have to be derived from experimental models. Several animal models of endurance exercise have been shown to mimic important aspects of human physiology and could help determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of training-induced improvements of cardiac function 40-44 . In a rat model of endurance training, increased dimensions and improved left ventricle contraction and relaxation can be observed in isolated cardiomyocytes. This demonstrates that improved intrinsic (i.e., without influence of the neuro-hormonal system) cardiomyocyte function can contribute to both the systolic and diastolic improvements that occur in the athlete's heart.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Since its inception in 1973, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been a revolutionary development in its scope and utility. The range of parameters that may be mapped using nuclear magnetic resonance has continued to increase and currently spans such phenomena as proton density measurement, nuclear magnetic relaxation times T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) and T2 (transverse relaxation time), flow in large vessels, diffusion, perfusion, temperature, blood volume, and blood oxygenation. All of the above-mentioned parameters have applications of clinical relevance, and many of them are in routine use. Clinical MRI is likely to move on from its current role simply as a structural technique for visualizing pathology, since researchers have now developed methods used to measure dynamic or functional aspects of human physiology. One of the significant applications of dynamic functional MRI is in the visualization of localized neuronal activity, inferred through its physiological...

Qualitative evaluation of structuraltextural changes in food

The observations were made in relation to the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables in terms of internal breakdown, bruises, voids and post-harvest studies (Chen et al, 1989 McCarthy, 1994 McCarthy et al, 1995 Clark et al., 1997). For apples this non-destructive method was used to investigate internal changes in water cores and the development of browning during storage (Clark and Burmeister, 1999 Clark and Richardson, 1999). The maturity of tomatoes has been followed by MR-imaging (Ishida et al, 1989 Saltveit, 1991), and MR-imaging has been used as a method of observing changes in internal structure during compression of tomatoes (Gonzalez et al., 1998). In the latter study, the macro-structural changes were quantified and this revealed registered changes in MRI signal intensity from specific tomato tissues.

Basic Principles and Techniques

Gorter is given credit for the origin of the concept of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 1936. y Work was continued by Purcell and Block in the mid 1940s with their Nobel Prize winning discovery of the magnetic resonance phenomenon. Experimentation was limited to very small quantities of materials that were contained within a vacuum chamber. In the late 1960s, Jackson reported NMR experiments on animal tissues. Damadian, in 1972, was the first to describe whole-body NMR for medical diagnosis. Shortly after, in 1973, Lauterbur theorized using magnetic field gradients to create a position-dependent NMR signal. The first MR images of detailed human anatomy were produced by Aberdeen in 1976. The widespread clinical use of MRI began approximately in 1980 and continues to grow at an exponential pace. NMR is the science that forms the basis for MRI. Abundant water molecules within the human body contain protons that act as microscopic magnets. When the human body is placed into a static...

Historical Background

Early psychosomatic methodology consisted mainly of clinical observations. By the late 1950s, an increasing number of psychologists were engaged in laboratory and clinical psychosomatic experiments. There was a declining interest in researching psychoanalytic concepts in psychosomatic problems, accompanied by a growing trend toward experimental research studying human biological response to hypnotic techniques, conditioning, and sensory input and deprivation. Psychosomatic research with animals provided a large body of scientific information, with relevant implications for human physiology and clinical practice.

Alexandre Emile John Yersin 18631943 Swiss French Microbiologist

The microbiologist Alexandre Yersin is credited with being the first to isolate successfully the bacillus responsible for the bubonic plague and produce a vaccine against it. Yersin was born on the shores of Lake Geneva in Lavaux, Switzerland. Yersin's father predeceased him, and his mother raised him while running a finishing school for girls. Though brought up a Calvinist Christian, Yersin eventually rejected all religion, but he did take up as a hobby the study of insects. As a young man he quitted the Academy of Lausanne, where he had finished a year of pre-medical training, going to Marburg, Germany, in 1884 to study botany. While there he switched his studies to human anatomy and pathology. In 1885 Yersin relocated to Paris, where he worked first in the Hotel Dieu hospital and then in the private bacteriological laboratory of Andre Cornil. While there he met the famed bacteriologist Louis Pasteur, at whose institute Yersin served first as a volunteer in studies of rabies and...

Wernickelichtheim Model Of Language Processing

The functional-anatomical model of language processing formulated by Wernicke and Lichtheim in the late 19th century has provided a useful introduction to aphasia for generations of clinicians. Thirteen years before Wernicke's famous monograph, Broca had revolutionized the study of aphasia by linking speech production deficits to frontal lobe damage (Broca, 1861). Wernicke brought these observations together with new data from aphasic patients with temporal lobe lesions, providing the first neuroanatomical account of both language comprehension and production (Wernicke, 1874). Lichtheim's expanded version of this model was influential because of the diagrammatic clarity with which it was able to predict aphasia syndromes from isolated lesions in functional centers or pathways linking the centers (Lichtheim, 1885 Table 1 and Figure 1).

A41 The Metaphysical Dichotomy in Early 20thCentury Biology and Medicine

Nevertheless, there was a widespread conviction during the 1920s and 1930s that human physiology had 'outgrown' the mechanistic age. This view was far from universal some writers still extolled the virtues of a physics-based approach to physiology. Thus, two kinds of physiologists were distinguished those who believed that 'vital' processes should be investigated by the reductionist methods of physics and chemistry, and those who believed that the object of their science was the associated form and functioning of human body (cf. Thompson 1917 Cannon 1939 Eccles 1979 Faber 1987).25 In short, the two distinct, apparently incompatible, perspectives that had co-existed in the 19 th century continued into the early 20th-century physiology. One was clearly mechanistic, though much transformed since the optimistic inception of mechanistic materialism. The other, associated with the majority of physiologists, was essentially vital-materialist.26

Risk Of The Other Guys Sperm

Semen Retention Drug

While there may be skepticism about the validity of human sperm competition theories, experimental research takes these theories quite seriously. Presuming that human sperm competition exists, studies have been designed to explore the role of human sperm competition in the context of male anatomy, male psychology and behavior, and human reproduction. One such study hypothesized that the human penis may have evolved as a semen displacement device.54 A research team created artificial anatomical models of male genitalia complete with simulated semen to test the hypothesis that the human penis is designed to displace semen deposited by other men in the reproductive tract of a woman (figure 2.3). Tyler argues that sperm then invade the body (particularly the male body since female bodies seem to have some unexplained defense against sperm59). Similar to how the body may reject a tissue or organ transplant, the body attacks the sperm cell, which then leads to inflammation and destruction...

The Black Death and Medieval Medicine

When the Plague struck the West in the middle years of the fourteenth century, no one really knew how to prevent or treat the disease. Many thought they did, but no diet or bloodletting or prayers or concoctions proved successful. The culture's intellectual framework for dealing with illness was deeply flawed, and therefore the various guesses people made based upon it were flawed. From 1348 to 1500 many physicians, Muslim and Christian, wrote treatises on the Plague, and scores of these survive. They contain clear evidence of this flawed framework and the largely useless advice that emerged from it. The failure of medieval medicine stems from stubborn adherence to ancient authorities and reluctance to change the model of human physiology and disease that they presented. The discoveries and inventions that did finally effect this change, however, took place over hundreds of years. Around 1700, a century after development of the microscope and telescope, scholars and physicians were...

Lll European Economic Council Directives and Regulations

The peaceful application of nuclear reactors after World War II initiated the production of large quantities of radionuclides, which were introduced to medicine for the investigation of human physiology and disease. The application of radioactive tracers for clinical diagnosis and therapy increased by the year, resulting in the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical procedures.

The Anatomy of the Achilles Tendon

Achilles Tendon Anatomy

The Achilles tendon (tendo calcaneus) is the strongest and thickest tendon in the body and serves to attach the triceps surae (soleus and the two heads of gastrocnemius) to the calcaneus (Fig. 2.1). It is a highly characteristic feature of human anatomy and it has even been suggested that the tendon has helped to shape human evolution. The emergence of man is critically linked to his ability to run, and man's unique combination of moderate speed and exceptional endurance has been underestimated.1 The Achilles tendon has been a key player in the natural selection process, and as in modern apes, an Achilles tendon was absent from Australopithecus (a genus ancestral to the genus Homo) and probably originated in Homo more than 3 million years ago.1

Galen of Pergamum 129199229 Greco Roman Physician

A physician and student of the medical thought and practices of the Greek physician Hippocrates of Cos (469-399 b.c.e.), Galen wrote medical works that had an enormous impact on the theories and practice of medicine in both the Christian and Islamic worlds of the Middle Ages. His father was a mathematician and architect who arranged to have young Galen formally exposed to Greek rhetoric and philosophy, as well as to what he himself could teach the boy. When he was about sixteen years old Galen began the study of medicine in Smyrna, and a few years later finished it in Alexandria, Egypt. He returned home to Pergamum, in modern-day Turkey, to practice medicine in 157 c.e. Galen began his career working at the Asklepion medical facility and tending the medical needs of gladiators. From the latter he no doubt learned a great deal about human physiology and the art of healing. Gladiators were slaves, and slaves property, and their owners wanted the best care for their money. Around 161 he...

Primary Afferents

Primary afferents serve receptors for touch, thermal sensations, proprioceptive sensations from displacement of muscles and joints, and pain. Their sensory nerve classification is into groups I, II, III, and IV, on the basis of decreasing axonal diameter and decreasing conduction velocity. Most human physiology texts have a table showing these parameters, and most are currently incorrect (Peters & Brooke, 1998). This is because the data were obtained using feline nerves, which conduct much faster than human ones. Avery rough rule of thumb is to halve the velocity and diameter to translate from cat to human. Human Ia fibers conduct in the approximate range of 40 to 60 meters per second.

Animal Models

When medical or psychological phenomena in animals are studied as analogues to those phenomena in humans, one is said to be using an animal model. Models are basic and powerful tools in biological and behavioral sciences, and this explains in part why so much research aimed at understanding human physiology, brain, and behavior is actually done with animals. The key word for understanding models is analogy. Use of a model is not a claim of identity with that being modeled. Rather, a model is a convergent set of analogies between the human phenomenon and the system that is being studied as a model for that phenomenon. Animal models are widely used in neuroscience and psychology to explore and understand new relationships and interactions among the environment, central nervous system, and behavior and to study these interrelations under simpler and more controlled conditions than can be achieved in research with humans. Animals models often allow for the discovery of causal relations...

Executive Summary

The 1998 Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (CSBM) report A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (NRC, 1998) assessed the known and potential effects of spaceflight on biological systems in general and on human physiology, behavior, and performance in particular, and recommended directions for research sponsored over the next decade by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The present follow-up report reviews specifically the overall content of the biomedical research programs supported by NASA in order to assess the extent to which current programs are consistent with recommendations of the Strategy report for biomedical research activities. In general, NASA programs concerned with fundamental gravitational biology are not considered here. The committee also notes that this report does not include an evaluation of NASA's response to the Strategy report, which had only recently been released at the initiation of this study.

Surgical Approaches

Claudius Galen, born in the year 129 in Pergamon in Turkey, was probably the first anatomist to note the segmental representation of the spinal cord. He performed experiments and dissections on dogs to better understand the human anatomy and the consequences of spinal cord injuries. This was 1800 years before Darwin's evolution theory. Examining victims of gladiator fights, he observed specific neurological deficits according to the level of the spinal cord and was able to specify the spinal level of injury according to his clinical examination 10 .

Animal Studies

Several animal models for microgravity-associated bone loss have been proposed, with particular attention given in recent years to a rat model involving hindlimb unloading. Although many insights have been obtained using this and other antiorthostatic models of skeletal unloading, concerns remain about their ability to provide a true reflection of what may be experienced by the human skeleton during spaceflight. In particular, it must be recognized that the number and variety of hormonal, nutrient, and other stresses applicable to the human situation may differ fundamentally from those of the hindlimb-unloaded rat. In accord with Strategy report recommendations, work at ARC continues to validate the hindlimb-unloading model and to delineate the mechanistic role of various hormones and cytokines. This work should continue to provide valuable information, particularly if molecularly based studies can be incorporated. Also in accord with Strategy report recommendations, some studies are...

When Not to Use T3

A variety of medical and nonmedical people have suggested that there is a need for T3 pills instead of, or in addition to, T4 pills to treat hypothyroidism (see Chapter 19). Most of these ideas are clearly false based on known facts of human physiology. Certainly, a few ideas warrant further investigation. Maybe we'll eventually be able to see properly done studies that provide answers. Until these answers are available, the best medical and physiological knowledge shows pure T4 pills as the appropriate way to treat hypothyroid people.


The exact mechanisms regulating the action of these ion pumps and the permeability of the choroidal epithelium is incompletely understood, yet a strong correlation exists between the rate of sodium exchange and the rate of spinal fluid formation. y The rate of sodium exchange is, in turn, partially regulated by the permeability of bicarbonate, and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase is important in this relationship. This enzyme is present in the cytosol of the choroidal epithelium and catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide. 10 , n Carbonic acid then freely dissociates to bicarbonate and a hydrogen ion that are available to participate in their respective ion pumps. Investigators have demonstrated that a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor such as acetazolamide can reduce CSF sodium exchange by 50 to 100 percent 10 and can reduce CSF production significantly. Other factors may influence the rate of CSF formation ( Ianble 2.6 1 ), although most findings are based on...

Organs and Systems

This chapter summarizes information about animal organs and systems. All multicellular organisms have specialized structures for functions, such as getting and using food and oxygen, reproducing, ridding themselves of wastes, and so on. Because of the extensiveness of the topic, the focus here is on human anatomy. Until the sixteenth century, knowledge of human anatomy was based largely on studies of other animals conducted by Galen (129-c. 216). Galen was a Greek physician and teacher whose writings dictated the theory and practice of medicine for about 1,500 years after his death. Born in Greece but doing most of his work in Rome where the Roman religion prohibited dissecting human corpses Galen had to base his studies on monkeys, dogs, goats, and other animals. Those observations were fruitful Galen described seven pairs of cranial nerves, the valves of the heart, and the differences in structure between arteries and veins. In physiology, he was the first to show that the arteries...

Going bellyup

To get a detailed idea of our internal structure, we therefore need to expose it to view. Leonardo, for instance, dissected more than ten human bodies so as to get an appreciation of human anatomy. The majority of us, though, would not relish the idea of contemplating our insides. Even the most attractive man or woman would seem abhorrent if we were to look at the tissue just beneath the skin. Notwithstanding this natural aversion, some artists have explored the aesthetics of raw flesh and bone. Rembrandt, for example, chose a slaughtered ox as a subject for a portrait (Fig. 14.1), and similar subjects have inspired other artists (e.g. Chaim Soutine, Francis Bacon). Even in these cases, though, the depiction of flesh can seem disturbing. This is not because there is something intrinsically ugly about an organism's insides we find the grain and texture of wood positively attractive, even though this comes from the inside of trees. Rather, it seems to me that the explanation has more to...

Expanding the scope

Genome-scale models should be useful for addressing all the five issues listed above in that they relate the contents of genomes to their respective living processes. In a sense, genome-scale models bring genomes to life. Most of the material in this book is related to metabolism and microorganisms. This scope is likely to change if there are subsequent editions of this book. We are bordering on having high-resolution reconstructions of signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks that will enable us to use the methods described herein to analyze their properties. With 99 of the human euchromatin sequence finished 32 , we are now in a position to reconstruct the human metabolic map. Once that is accomplished, the materials and methods described in this book will hopefully become useful to study human physiology and pathophysiology.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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