Skin Peptide Sampling

1 FDA (2004) The Critical Path to New Medical Products. http www.fda.gov oc initiatives criticalpath 2 Kan CW, Fredlake CP, Doherty EA, Barron AE (2004) DNA sequencing and geno-typing in miniaturized electrophoresis systems. Electrophoresis 25 3564-3588 3 McGall GH, Christians FC (2002) High-density genechip oligonucleotide probe arrays. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 77 21-42 4 van Steensel B (2005) Mapping of genetic and epigenetic regulatory networks using microarrays. Nat Genet 37 Suppl S18-24...

Mathematical models Assistants for the human brain

Biological systems often contain many components (e.g., enzymes) that jointly determine the behavior of the entire system. The concentrations and activities of those components are regulated at many hierarchical levels (transcription, translation, post-translational modification). The biochemical reactions they catalyze usually obey non-linear reaction kinetics, such as given by Michaelis-Menten type and Hill equations. Together, this complexity hampers our ability to understand large...

Robustness attributes of pathogens

Pathogens exploit host systems for their survival and proliferation. Often, they exploit host immune reactions to achieve this goal. There are several means that pathogens employ to attain a certain level of robustness against host immunity including countermeasures to neutralize the effects of host immunity, evade host recognition through countermeasures and genetic variations, and mechanisms to hijack host immune reactions seen in some of pathogens. Shigella avoids autophage by secreting IcsB...

RNA profiling of host cells after infections

The functional genomics approach most widely applied to explore the response of host cells to microbial infections is RNA profiling. In one of the first studies, Huang et al. showed that 20 of the 6,800 genes analyzed in dendritic cells (DCs) changed their RNA level in response to infection with E. coli, Candida albicans or influenza virus 92 . Of the 1,330 regulated genes, 166 genes were strongly regulated after infection with each microorganism. A comparison of the host cell RNA profiles from...

The NADP biosynthesis subsystem

Nadp Biosynthesis

A table of functional roles, which are known to be involved in the biogenesis of NAD and NADP in various species is shown in Table 2. A general subsystem diagram, illustrating respective biochemical transformations, is shown in Figure 2. Once the initial set of functional roles is defined and matched with annotations from model organisms, the system automatically fills in gene identifiers (IDs) in the respective cells of a subsystem spreadsheet. This spreadsheet is a key representation of a...

Matrixrepresented protein networks genome maps

An alternative approach to represent genome-wide protein networks is shown in Figure 4. In this approach, each linked pair of proteins is indicated as a single point on a two dimensional matrix, corresponding to the position of the genes on the chromosome 50 . Each axis of the graph represents a monotonically ordered list of genes, starting at the origin of replication and proceeding along the chromosome. The M. tuberculosis genome has approximately 4,000 genes, as indicated on the x and y axis...