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Memory Professor System Summary


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Author: Kit Stevenson
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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Memory Professor System can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Case Study 1 Deliriuma Common Disorder Of Attentional Function And Working Memory

Her confusional state cleared within a week, but for some time she continued to show significant disturbances in attentional function, in spatial relations, especially spatial synthesis, and in other forms of nonverbal or novel cognitive processing, along with quite poor and easily disrupted working memory. The atten-tional and working memory disturbance was significantly worse in the morning for uncertain reasons. She became depressed, though this was successfully treated with an antidepressant that possessed both serotonergic and noradrenergic properties. This type of antidepressant was chosen over a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with the hope that it would better improve right-hemisphere arousal presumably disrupted in the context of the right pontine reticular formation cerebrovascular accident (CVA). their middle and late stages, the distinction between baseline dementia and confusional states gradually disappears, as patients...

Reasoning and Working Memory Using the Task Interference Paradigm

Memory slave systems, relatively little has been done using this technique to study high-level cognition or the central executive. Central to high-level cognitive processes is the ability to form and manipulate mental representations. Review of the functions of the central executive in either Baddeley or Cowan's models suggests that the central executive should be critical for thinking and reasoning - a hypothesis that has been confirmed in several studies. In their seminal work on working memory Baddeley and Hitch (1974) asked participants to perform a reasoning task in which they read a simple sentence containing information about the order of two abstract terms (i.e., A and B). Their task was to judge whether a letter sequence presented after the sentence reflected the order of the terms in the statement. For instance, a TRUE statement would be A not preceded by B followed by AB (Ref. 7, p. 50). Baddeley and Hitch varied the statements with respect to statement voicing (i.e.,...

The Where What and How of Working Memory and Thought

So far, we have suggested that there are at least two important aspects of working memory for human thinking - a modality-specific maintenance function that is capable of preserving information over short periods of time and a manipulation or at-tentional control function that is capable Figure 19.6. Structural Equation Model of the relationship of working memory and short-term memory and their role in analytic problem solving and intelligence. From Engle, Kane, and Tuholski (l999). Figure 19.6. Structural Equation Model of the relationship of working memory and short-term memory and their role in analytic problem solving and intelligence. From Engle, Kane, and Tuholski (l999). of activating, operating, and updating this information during conscious thought. Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have devoted much effort to answering the question of where in the brain these working memory mechanisms operate. This topic is beyond the scope of this chapter see Goel, Chap. 20, for a more...

Working Memory Deficits

Working memory is the process of retaining recent information in order to perform a behavioral response after the informational cue is removed. Patients with schizophrenia have medication-resistant deficits in working memory that are thought to arise from dysfunction in the DLPFC or from disregulation of this region by other cortical or subcortical structures (Levy and Goldman-Rakic, 2000). During the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a neuropsychological measure of cognitive function, normal controls exhibit an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, while schizophrenia patients fail to do so. Patients with schizophrenia also show numerous deficits in executive function, including poor processing of cognitive information, decreased problem-solving skills as measured by the Tower of London test, and increases in perseverative errors.

Multicomponent View of Working Memory

There are a number of well-developed models and theories of working memory (for an overview, see Miyake & Shah, 1999), but the best known model is the multicomponent model developed by Alan Baddeley (1986). According to this model, working memory is a system that consists of three major subsystems. Two of the subsystems, called the phonological (or articulatory) loop and the visuospatial sketchpad, are specialized slave systems whose primary functions are the temporary maintenance and processing of speech-based phonological information and of visual and spatial information, respectively. Each subsystem is assumed to consist of two separable components, a passive phonological store and an active rehearsal process for the phonological loop (Bad-deley, 1986) and a visual component (visual cache) and a spatial component (inner scribe) for the visuospatial sketchpad (Logie, 1995). The remaining subsystem is called the central executive and is a general-purpose control structure that...

Working Memory and Executive Function Network

A critical cognitive process during rehabilitation requires patients to bring information to mind, hold it, and process these mental representations. The prefrontal cortex includes the machinery for online information processing for thought, for comprehension, and for carrying out intentions. Remembering often requires planning and a strategy. Tests of strategic memory, such as the free recall of words, the temporal order of a list of items, and judgments about how often an item has been seen, rely on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for processing and on the right frontal pole for monitoring the results of retrieval.347 Ordinary memory performance is guided by a variety of subjective organizing strategies. The working memory cognitive system in the DLPFC supports these strategies with temporary storage, online manipulations, and transformations of the information needed for an ongoing cognitive task. Short-term memory is a component of working memory and can be thought of...

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan (1988, 1995) has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model (Figure 19.4 ), Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system, information can either be within the focus of attention, which Cowan believes is capacity limited, or in active memory, which Cowan suggests is time limited. The focus of attention is similar to James's (1890) concept of primary memory and is equated to the information that is currently in conscious awareness. In contrast, active memory, a concept similar to Hebb's (1949) cell assemblies or Ericsson and Kintsch's (1 995) long-term working memory, refers to information that has higher activation...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

Baddeley Model Working Memory

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent description of his working-memory model, Baddeley (2000) proposed a four-component model (Figure 19.2), including the phonological loop, the visuospa-tial sketchpad, the central executive, and the model's most recent addition, the episodic Figure 19.2. Baddeley's (2000) four-component working memory model. Figure 19.2. Baddeley's (2000) four-component working memory model. buffer. This model has primarily been conceptualized based on results from behavioral dual-task paradigms and neuropsychol-ogy. For...

Measurement of Working Memory and Its Role in Complex Cognition

The capacity of short-term memory has traditionally been assessed with a simple span task that requires participants to repeat back a list of digits or words in correct sequence. In contrast to such storage-oriented measures, currently used measures of working memory capacity require participants to perform a dual task, namely the simultaneous processing of some information and remembering of to-be-recalled items. The best-known measure of this kind is the reading span test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), in which participants read sentences aloud while remembering the final word of each sentence for later recall. Performance on this task has been shown to correlate well with complex cognitive tasks, such as reading comprehension. According to a meta-analysis (Daneman & Merikle, 1996), the average correlation between the reading span score and global comprehension measures like the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was .41 and was significantly higher than that between traditional short-term...

Design of Representation Structures for Working Memory Representations

As described above, spatio-analogical representations in working memory (WM) can be either spatial or visual, where the spatial representation is assumed to be constructed first during a reasoning task and may be further processed towards a visual mental image. From the perspective of cognitive economy (Collins and Quillian, 1969), however, it is sensible to assume that a mental representation is only made as specific as necessary with respect to the task to be performed on. Thus, a visual mental image is only formed when truly visual information has to be dealt with, and similarly the spatial representation is only made as specific as necessary. For the construction of shapes in (visual) WM, knowledge fragments that describe pieces of shape information are retrieved from long-term memory (LTM). Since these shape fragments are used to evoke specific shapes in a mental image, they can be characterized as visual. On the other hand, pieces of shape information often are combined to form...

Explicit and Implicit Memory Network

Declarative or explicit memory refers to what can be recalled consciously and reported. This form of memory includes episodic memories, which are personal experiences, images and everyday events with their rich contexts and recreation over time, and semantic memories, which refer to the recall of factual knowledge about the world and general information about our surrounds. Declarative memory stands in contrast to implicit or procedural memory, which cannot be overtly reported, such as how one types on a keyboard after training. With nondeclarative memory, past experience influences current behavior, even though we do not consciously recollect the details of what was learned. Procedural memory for skills, as discussed earlier, as well as habits and biases, depends especially upon the cerebellum and neostriatum. Knowledge about the qualities of items that place them in the same category can also be acquired implicitly, so that even an amnesic patient can learn the pattern that...

Individual Differences in Working Memory

An alternative to Baddeley's dual-task methodology uses individual differences to study working memory. Daneman and Carpenter (1980) first used this approach to investigate how working memory was involved in language comprehension. They developed a reading span task that required subjects to read several sentences and then later recall the last word of each sentence in the correct order. The participant's span is typically defined as the maximum-sized trial with perfect performance. This measure correlated relatively well with individuals' reading comprehension ability. Unlike a simple short-term memory-span task, the working-memory-span task required the subjects to do a more complex task while also remembering a list of items. In this way, the span task is believed to tap both the maintenance (slave system) and manipulation (central executive and episodic buffer) aspects of working memory. Other span tasks have been developed to vary the nature of the task that participants perform...

Working Memory

Just as the previous section's model of analogy makes heavy use of declarative knowledge and corresponding mechanisms, so does this section's model of working memory. Working memory has been implicated in the performance of such diverse tasks as verbal reasoning and prose comprehension (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), sentence processing (Just & Carpenter, 1 992), free recall learning (Baddeley & Hitch, 1977), prospective memory (Marsh & Hicks, 1998), and note-taking and writing (Engle, 1994). This research has suggested that working-memory resources are limited because, as working-memory demands of a task in crease, participants' performance declines. Moreover, working-memory limitations appear to differ across people such that some people show a more striking decrease in performance as a function of task demands than others (see also Morrison, Chap. 19). Each of the four production systems discussed thus far has an account for the impact of working-memory demands on cognitive processing...

The Nature of Human Concepts

The three chapters in Part I address foundational issues related to the representation of human concepts. Chapter 2 by Goldstone and Son reviews work on the core concept of similarity - how people assess the degree to which objects or events are alike. Chapter 3 by Medin and Rips considers research on categories and how concepts are organized in semantic memory. Thinking depends not only on representations of individual concepts, such as dogs and cats, but also on representations of the relationships among concepts, such as the fact that dogs often chase cats. In Chapter 4, Doumas and Hummel evaluate different computational approaches to the representation of relations.

Cognitive and Neural Constraints on Human Thought

High-level human thinking cannot be fully understood in isolation from fundamental cognitive processes and their neural substrates. In Chapter 19, Morrison reviews the wealth of evidence indicating that thinking and reasoning depend critically on what is known as working memory, that is, the system responsible for short-term maintenance

Sensorimotor Networks

Motor control is tied, especially in the rehabilitation setting, to learning skills. Motor skills are gained primarily through the cerebral organization for procedural memory. The other large classification of memory, declarative knowledge, depends upon hippocampal activity. The first is about how to, the latter is the what of facts and events. Procedural knowledge, compared to learning facts, usually takes considerable practice over time. Skills learning is also associated with experience-specific organizational changes within the sensorimotor network for motor control. A model of motor control, then, needs to account for skills learning. To successfully manipulate the controllers of movement, the clinician needs a multilevel, 3-dimensional point of view. The vista includes a reductionist analysis, examining the properties of motor patterns generated by networks, neurons, synapses, and molecules. Our sight-line also includes a synthesis that takes a systems approach to the...

AMPA Receptors in Health

Glutamate receptors contribute to processes of normal development, synaptic plasticity, learning, and excitatory neurotransmission of humans, nonhuman primates, rodents, Drosophila species (fruit fly), and C. elegans (roundworm). AMPA receptors participate with NMDA receptors in the coordination of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), which are strongly suspected to subserve memory functions, including working memory, and govern experience-dependent synaptic plasticity by the rapid cycling of AMPA receptors into and out of the cell membrane via complex protein-protein interaction mechanisms (Luscher, Nicoll, Malenka, & Muller, 2000) Glutamate neurons project from most cerebral cortical regions to other areas of cortex, the basal ganglia, the brain stem ventral tegmental area, and other sites. This strongly suggests powerful local and global organizational and regulatory functions for the AMPA and other glutamate receptor subtypes in the brain.

Transformational Models

In an early incarnation of a transformational approach to cognition broadly construed, Garner (1974) stressed the notion of stimuli that are transformationally equivalent and are consequently possible alternatives for each other. In artificial intelligence, Shimon Ullman (1996) argued that objects are recognized by being aligned with memorized pictorial descriptions. Once an unknown object has been aligned with all candidate models, the best match to the viewed object is selected. The alignment operations rotate, scale, translate, and topographically warp object descriptions. For rigid transformations, full alignment can be obtained by aligning three points on the object with three points on the model description. Unlike recognition strategies that require structural descriptions (e.g., Biederman, 1987 Hummel, 2000, 2001), Ullman's alignment does not require an image to be decomposed into parts.

Overview of Motor Control

No single theory explains the details of the controls for normal motor behavior, let alone the abnormal patterns and synergies that emerge after a lesion at any level of the neu-raxis. Many models successfully predict aspects of motor performance. Some models offer both biologically plausible and behaviorally relevant handles on sensorimotor integration and motor learning. Among the difficulties faced by theorists and experimentalists is that no simple ordinary movement has only one motor control solution. Every step over ground and every reach for an item can be accomplished by many different combinations of muscle activations, joint angles, limb trajectories, velocities, accelerations, and forces. Thus, many kinematically redundant biological scripts are written into the networks for motor control. The nervous system computates within a tremendous number of degrees of freedom for any successful movement. In addition, every movement changes features of our physical relationship to...

Electrical Probes Of Mind And Brain

Chapter 3 provides a very useful summary of many findings that indicate different cognitive function (e.g., working memory and attention) often recruit the same brain area. The authors are surely correct that cognitive psychology textbook chapter titles are not an appropriate guide to brain localization. However, before we conclude that different operations activate the same brain area, we need to be more clear about what makes a difference in mental operations. For example, theories of working memory assume the involvement of attentional networks, so it would be surprising not to find attention areas active in working memory tasks, but it is rather easy to design an attention task that does not involve working memory. We also need to be more explicit about what the same brain area means (i.e., the extent of overlap needed to assume identity). Finally we need to know when in the task a particular area is active. Both perception and imagery tasks may activate prestriate visual areas,...

Functions of Concepts

So far, we have introduced two roles for concepts categorization (broadly construed) and communication. These functions and associated subfunctions are important to bear in mind because studying any one in isolation can lead to misleading conclusions about conceptual structure (see Solomon, Medin, & Lynch, 1999, for a review bearing on this point). At this juncture, however, we need to introduce one more plot element into the story we are telling. Presumably everything we have been talking about has implications for human memory and memory organization. After all, concepts are mental representations, and people must store these representations somewhere in memory. However, the relation between concepts and memory may be more intimate. A key part of our story is what we call the semantic memory marriage, the idea that memory organization corresponds to meaningful relations between concepts. Mental pathways that lead from one concept to another - for example, from ELBOW to ARM -...

Fragmentation of Semantics and Memory

Prior to about 1980, most researchers in this field saw themselves as investigating semantic memory - the way that long-term memory organizes meaningful information. Around 1980, the term itself became passe, at least for this same group of researchers, and the field regrouped under the banner of Categories and Concepts (the title of Smith & Medin's, 1981, synthesis of research in this area). At the time, these researchers may well have seen this change as a purely nominal one, but we suspect it reflected a retreat from the claim that semantic memory research had much to say about either semantics or memory. How did this change come about Related questions apply to other psychological theories of meaning in the semantic memory tradition. To handle the typicality results mentioned earlier, some investigators proposed that the mental representation of a category such as daisies consists of a prototype for that category - for example, a description of a good example of a daisy (e.g.,...

Category Learning and Inference

The upsurge of cognitive neuroscience has reinforced the interest in multiple memory systems. One intriguing line of research by Knowlton, Squire, and associates (Knowl-ton, Mangels, & Squire, 1996 Knowlton & Squire, 1993 Squire & Knowlton, 1995) favoring multiple categorization systems involves a dissociation between categorization and recognition. Knowlton and Squire (1993)usedthe Posner and Keele dot pattern stimuli to test amnesic and matched control patients on either categorization learning and transfer or a new-old recognition task (involving five previously studied patterns versus five new patterns). The amnesiacs performed very poorly on the recognition task but were not reliably different from control participants on the categorization task. Knowlton and Squire took this as evidence for a two-system model, one based on explicit memory for examples and one based on an implicit system (possibly prototype abstraction). On this view, amnesiacs have lost access to the explicit...

Theories Modules and Psychometaphysics

Whereas lay theories of teapots and other artifacts touch instead on intended and actual functions. However, how deep do these divisions go On the one hand, beliefs about these domains could be modular (relatively clustered, relatively isolated), innate, universal, and local to specific brain regions. On the other hand, they may be free floating, learned, culturally specific, and distributed across cortical space. This issue is important to us because it ultimately affects whether we can patch up the semantic memory marriage.

Memory Related Chemical Changes

The catecholamines appear to have an important role in working memory. Dopaminergic function is decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease, who have reduced working memory capacity. There is some evidence that dopamine agonists can improve working memory capacity in patients with Parkinson's disease y and in healthy subjects.y

Conjunctive Connectionist Representations

Tensors provide a basis for representing the semantic content of relations (in the case of tensors that are isomorphic with SAA) or relational roles (in the case of tensors based on role-filler bindings) and to represent role-filler bindings explicitly. Accordingly, numerous researchers have argued that tensor products and their relatives provide an appropriate model of human symbolic representations. Halford and his colleagues also showed that tensor products based on SAA representations provide a natural account of the capacity limits of human working memory and applied these ideas to account for numerous phenomena in relational reasoning and cognitive development (see Halford, Chap. 22). Tensors are thus at least a useful approximation of human relational representations.

Role Filler Binding by Vector Addition

Binding by synchrony of firing is much reviled in some segments of the connec-tionist modeling community. For example, Edelman and Intrator (2003) dismissed it as an engineering convenience. Similarly, O'Reilly et al. (2003) dismissed it on the grounds that (1) it is necessarily transient i.e., it is not suitable as a basis for storing bindings in long-term memory (LTM) , (2) it is capacity limited (i.e., it is only possible to have a finite number of bound groups simultaneously active and mutually out of synchrony Hummel & Biederman, 1992 Hummel & Holyoak, 2003a Hummel & Stankiewicz, 1996), and (3) bindings represented by synchrony of firing must ultimately make contact with stored conjunctive codes in LTM. These limitations do indeed apply to binding by synchrony of firing (1) and (2) are also precisely the limitations of human working memory (WM) (see Cowan, 2000). Limitation (3) is meant to imply that synchrony is redundant If you already have to represent bindings conjunctively...

Spatial Processing And Viewdependent Representations

Abstract View-dependent representations have been shown in studies of navigation, object and scene recognition, and spatial reasoning. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between different types of view-dependent representations. Based on previous studies and new data presented in this chapter, we proposed a model that contains an egocentric spatial working memory and a LTM representation of similar nature, and discussed theoretical issues that can potentially distinguish between different models of spatial representations.

Representation Systems

According to this model, 1) the representation encodes allocentric object-to-object relationships 2) the direction reference can be selected in various ways, either according to the viewer, the object array itself, or the environment geometry 3) the spatial working memory system which is primarily for guiding actions updates the viewer's position and orientation relative to the same reference frame, e.g., treating the self' as just another object, and the egocentric self-to-object relations are then computed from the object-to-object relationships in LTM. This model is similar to Sholl's model (Easton & Sholl, 1995), which also includes an allocentric LTM system and an egocentric working memory system. We agree that there are LTM representations which are typically not updated, and working memory representations that are updated as the viewer moves. However, we disagree on the nature of the LTM and the nature of updating in the working memory system. We believe that 1) the working...

Associated Neurological Findings

The neurologist should be alert to signs of dementia (e.g., inattention, memory dysfunction, apathy, disorientation) in patients presenting with olfactory dysfunction, since decreased ability to smell is among the first signs of Alzheimer's disease and is also seen in some patients with Huntington's chorea, multi-infarct dementia, and Pick's disease. Evidence of fainting spells or blackouts, disorientation, seizure activity, and mood change should be sought because both increases and decreases in olfactory function are found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Olfactory loss, along with short-term memory problems and associated confabulation, may help to define vitamin B-, deficiency and the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Cognitive alterations (e.g., mental slowing, confusion, depression, and hallucinations) may also signal the presence of pernicious anemia.

Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction ACME

ACME has a companion model, ARCS (Analog Retrieval by Constraint Satisfaction Thagard, Holyoak, Nelson, & Gochfeld, 1 990) that models analog retrieval. Analogs in long-term memory are connected within a semantic network (see Medin & Rips, Chap. 3 ) this network of concepts provides the initial basis by which a target analog activates potential source analogs. Those analogs in memory that are identified as having semantic links to the target (i.e., those that share similar concepts) then participate in an ACME-like constraint satisfaction process to select the optimal source. The constraint network formed by ARCS is restricted to those concepts in each analog that have semantic links hence, ARCS shows less sensitivity to structure in retrieval than does ACME in mapping. Because constraint satisfaction algorithms are inherently competitive, ARCS can model the finding that analogical access is more sensitive to structure when similar source analogs in long-term memory compete to be...

Instinctual Energies and Affective States

So far, the question of how affect is actually generated by neural activities has only been addressed in theoretical terms. As noted at the outset of this chapter, there is a prevailing notion that it is produced, in some manner, by higher cerebral activities that mediate cognitive consciousness, for instance, by brain areas that mediate working memory (e.g., LeDoux, 1996) or in those that allow us to resymbolize events in terms of language (Rolls, 1999). Damasio (1996), with his somatic marker hypothesis, has entertained the classic James-Lange view that emotional experience arises from inputs to the somatosensory processing areas of the cortex.

Conclusions and Future Directions

When we think analogically, we do much more than just compare two analogs based on obvious similarities between their elements. Rather, analogical reasoning is a complex process of retrieving structured knowledge from long-term memory, representing and manipulating role-filler bindings in working memory, performing self-supervised learning to form new inferences, and finding structured intersections between analogs to form new abstract schemas. The entire process is governed by the core constraints provided by isomorphism, similarity of elements, and the goals of the reasoner (Holyoak & Thagard, 1989a). These constraints apply in all components of analogical reasoning retrieval, mapping, inference, and relational generalization. When analogs are retrieved from memory, the constraint of element similarity plays a large role, but relational structure is also important - especially when multiple source analogs similar to the target are competing to be selected. For mapping, structure is...

Models Aiming at Cognitive Adequacy

An early comprehensive model of visual mental imagery based on empirical studies has been presented by Kosslyn (1980). This model has completely been implemented as a computer program. It employs a regular raster as spatio-analogical representation structure in which mental images are constructed, inspected, and manipulated. Like the human retina and the corresponding brain systems, this surface representation is characterized by a limited spatial extent and a limited resolution, which decreases towards the periphery. It roughly possesses a circular structure and the represented content fades out over time if not periodically refreshed. The information used for image construction is taken from the deep representation (corresponding to human long-term memory). In this representation, both literal (shape-related) and propositional information (spatial relationships) is encoded in various individual data files. Inspired by Kosslyn's second imagery model, the computational model MIRAGE...

Special Features Of Motor Cortices

Rehabilitationists can begin to consider the contribution of the cortical nodes in the motor system to motor control, to anticipate how the activity of clusters of neurons may vary in relation to different tasks, to test for their dysfunction, and to adapt appropriate interventions. For example, patients with lesions that interrupt the corticocortical projections from somatosensory cortex to the primary motor cortex might have difficulty learning new motor skills, but they may be able to execute existing motor skills.67 The lateral premotor areas, especially BA 46 and 9, receive converging visual, auditory, and other sensory inputs that integrate planned motor acts. As discussed later in the section on working memory (see Working Memory and Executive Function Network, these regions have an important role in the temporal organization of behaviors, including motor sets and motor sequences.68 In the presence of a lesion that destroys or disconnects some motor areas, a portion of the...

Nosology Core Versus Extended Consciousness

Humans depart from other mammalian lines of evolution principally in terms of extended neocortical and prefrontal system development. These developments give humans vastly enhanced cognitive and conceptual abilities, including language, along with extended capacities for working memory (Baddeley, 1986), planning, and other

Comparative Neuropsychology

Although many paradigms have been employed, two popular tasks are classical delayed-reaction tests such as delayed response (DR) and delayed alternation (DA). Both tasks measure a subject's ability to bridge a time gap (see Fuster, 1997). This ability has been termed working memory, which is a transient form of memory. Working memory is multimodal in nature, and it serves to keep newly incoming information available online it acts much like a mental clipboard for use in problem solving, planning, and the like. In the classical DR task, the experimenter places a small reward into a reinforcement well under one of two identical stimuli. The subject is able to see the experimenter put a reward there but cannot reach it. After the experimenter covers the reinforcement wells with the stimuli, he or she lowers a screen, obscuring the stimulus tray. After a delay period, usually between 0 and 60 seconds, the experimenter raises the screen to allow the subject to make a choice. The subject...

Disorders of Consciousness A Basic Typology

Recent work on diseases of consciousness suggests a basic taxonomy with a gradient from coma, to persistent vegetative state (PVS), then to akinetic mutism (AKM), hyperkinetic mutism (HKM, a rare and little studied disorder), and finally to delirium (Schiff and Plum, 2000). Table 3.1 outlines progressive impairment of functions that comprise essential components of primary or core consciousness and includes two basic components of more extended cognitive consciousness (short-term and working memory). As one can see from the table, arousal to wakefulness, attention, emotion, and intention are progressively impaired as one moves toward more severe disorders of consciousness. Conversely, in disorders of consciousness that are less severe, such as delirium, the disturbances of attention and intention are often more partial, while emotion is often disinhibited and arousal to wakefulness is preserved (outside of stuporous deliriums). The graded nature of these disorders of consciousness,...

Asymmetries of Associative Forebrain Structures One Trial Avoidance Learning

This assumption is supported by 2- 14C deoxyglucose (2-DG) experiments which demonstrate that 2-DG injected shortly before training leads to higher radioactivity scores in the left IMHV and the left lobus parolfactorius (LPO) (Rose & Csillag, 1985). The early phase of memory consolidation involves a cascade of synaptic events that seem to hold the trace briefly and simultaneously initiate the gene activation processes required for long-term memory (Rose, 1995). In brief, these steps first require an increased glutamate receptor binding in the left, but not the right, IMHV (Stewart et al., 1992) a concomitant upregulation of NMDA (Steele et al., 1995) then a pre- and postsynaptic Ca2+ flux (Salinska et al., 1999). The increased opening of Ca2+ channels, combined with further molecular events, leads to an activation of the immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun (Anokhin & Rose, 1991), which probably initiate pre- and postsynaptic structure alterations.

Potential Interventions

Because neurocognitive deficits are becoming recognized as core deficits in schizophrenia, there has been a resurgence in interest in designing cognitive rehabilitation programs targeted at this population. That cognitive deficits are a residual part of psychiatric illness and often limit vocational and social choices (73) leads to the conclusion that testing the efficacy of cognitive remediation in schizophrenic illness is a worthwhile goal. A number of investigators have recently made cogent arguments to this effect (74), and a number of groups are attempting programs to target and remediate specific deficits. In targeting attentional processes, some studies have found that schizophrenics can be trained to reduce distraction in reaction time tests (75) and improve on the Continuous Performance Test (a measure of vigilance) and BPRS total score using a computerized program designed for head-injured patients (76). Errorless learning principles (subjects experience no failures) have...

Changing Concepts of the Reticular Activating System Arousal Revisited

That forebrain arousal is not a unitary process. Noradrenergic systems (NE) appear crucial to sensory tuning, to signal to noise in sensory systems, and for attentional sharpening of posterior cortical processing. DA systems from VTA mediate a nonspecific seeking and motivational or affective arousal. ACh systems are central to thalamocortical and cognitive arousal, attention, and short-term memory. 5-HT, an indolamine, is relevant to behavioral inhibition, and may regulate channelizing of brain systems and some degree of inhibition of catecholamine systems. These differential roles are mirrored in their cortical projection targets (e.g., ACh tends to project to large pyramidal neurons critical to cortico-cortical communication, while 5-HT projections typically synapse onto inhibitory interneurons). As mentioned above, psychiatry has traditionally targeted the vast majority of its probes and therapies toward these systems. The basic topography of these aminergic regulatory systems for...

Thalamic Systems Intralaminar Nuclei ILN

The intralaminar nuclei are a group of midline systems that receive primarily gluta-matergic projections from the classical lateral reticular systems in the brainstem (see summary of RAS) and also from pontine cholinergic systems. ILN in turn sends primarily glutamatergic connections to specific layers of cortex (typically layers I and II), to the basal ganglia, and to the basal forebrain. The ILN has traditionally been conceptualized as an extension of the RAS and, along with the nRt, part of the nonspecific thalamus. The ILN includes both anterior and posterior groups of nuclei. Because of the complex connectivities of the ILN, these nuclei play a central role in cortical arousal, attention, intention, working memory, and sensorimotor integration, including gaze control, with gaze control being virtually paradigmatic for attentional control in visual animals. Schiff and Plum (2000) propose that anterior ILN groups perhaps have a greater role in working memory sensory integration,...

Nucleus Reticularis Thalami nRt

NRt is a thin sheath of neurons on the entire lateral surface of the thalamus. It is a GABAergic inhibitory system that receives collateral projections from all thalamocortical axons passing through it. nRt provides a basis for adaptive gating and selective inhibition and activation of the highly distributed cortical systems, acting as a central pacemaker for thalamic oscillations. It receives projections from the pontine choliner-gic nuclei and the midbrain portions of the reticular activating system, including the superior colliculus and cuneiform nucleus. Lesion correlates for nRt have not been well-established given that it is almost impossible for naturalistic lesions of the thalamus to be confined to nRt, but it presumably has a central role in attentional gating, and in underpinning mutual reciprocal inhibition of multiple cortical areas in the service of directed cognitive activity. Several theorists of thalamocortical function (Taylor, 1999 Scheibel, 1980 Baars and Newman,...

Imagery as Internalized Perception

In the cases of mental rotation, mental movement, and mental size transformations, objects or object parts undergo imagined transformations. There is also evidence that objects can be mentally scanned in a continuous manner. In a popular task introduced by Kosslyn and his colleagues, participants memorize a map of an island with several landmarks such as a well and a cave. Participants are then asked to conjure an image of the map and to imagine looking first at the well and then mentally scanning from the well to the cave. The general finding is that mental scanning between two imagined landmarks increases linearly as the distance between them increases (Denis & Kosslyn, 1999 Kosslyn, Ball, & Rieser, 1978 Figure 10.2). The phenomenon holds for spatial arrays established by description rather than depiction - again, under instructions to form and use images (Denis, 1996). Mental scanning occurs for arrays in depth and for flat perspectives on 3 D arrays (Pinker, 1980). In the previous...

Distortions as Clues to Reasoning

What might a representation that captures all these distortions look like It would look like nothing that can be sketched on a sheet of paper, that is, is coherent in two dimensions. Landmark asymmetries alone disallow that. It does not seem likely that people make these judgments by retrieving a coherent prestored mental representation, a cognitive map, and reading the direction or distance from it. Rather, it seems that people construct representations on the fly, incorporating only the information needed for that judgment, the relevant region, the specific entities within it. Some of the information may be visuospatial from experience or from maps some may be linguistic. For these reasons, cognitive collage seems a more apt metaphor than cognitive map for whatever representations underlie spatial judgment and memory (Tversky, 1993). Such representations are schematic they leave out much information and simplify others. Schematization occurs for at least two reasons. More exact...

From Spatial to Abstract Reasoning

Indeed, spatial reasoning is often studied in the context of graphics, maps, diagrams, graphs, and charts. External representations bear similarities to internal representations if only because they are creations of the human mind that is cognitive tools to increase the power of the human mind. They also bear formal similarities in that both internal and external representations are mappings between elements and relations. External representations are constrained by a medium and unconstrained by working memory for this reason, inconsistencies, ambiguities, and incompleteness may be reduced in external representations.

Beginnings of Empirical Research

Many view the scientific study of dreams beginning in 1953 with the discovery by Aserinsky and Kleitman of an association between dreaming and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep generally is characterized by four different stages as reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In contrast to the higher-voltage more-patterned EEG activity found in sleep, REM sleep appears to have an EEG pattern more like that of the waking state, also is referred to as paradoxical sleep, and is characterized by low-voltage random-appearing EEG activity. Awaking an individual during REM sleep is more likely to result in a dream report than any other sleep stage. Following the discovery of the association between REM sleep and dreams, a variety of labs examined the dream state. The work included a variety of foci including the nature of the dream itself, factors involved in dream recall, the influence of external factors on dreaming, and other factors associated with dreaming. For example, following a...

Problem Solving as Search Through a Problem Space

To investigate these heuristics, Newell and Simon (1972) relied on two primary methodologies - think-aloud protocols (also see Duncker, 1945) and computer simulation. Solvers were required to say out loud everything they were thinking as they solved the problem - that is, everything that went through verbal working memory. Subjects' verbalizations - their think-aloud protocols -were tape-recorded and then transcribed verbatim for analysis. This method is advantageous for studying problem solving because it provides a detailed record of the solver's ongoing solution process. An important caveat that must be kept in mind while interpreting a subject's verbalizations is that a protocol is relatively reliable only for what it positively contains, but not for that which it omits (Duncker, 1945, p. 11). The use of think-aloud protocols to study problem solving was popularized by Newell and Simon. Ericsson and Simon (1980) provided an in-depth discussion of the conditions under which this...

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Across Studies

From the data set of a previous large-scale metaanalysis (Cabeza and Nyberg, 2000), we selected 136 studies in five cognitive domains (1) attention, (2) perception, (3) working memory, (4) semantic memory retrieval and episodic memory encoding, and (5) episodic memory retrieval. The rationale for considering semantic memory retrieval and episodic memory encoding within the same category is that these two processes tend to

Problem Representation Overview

The representation a solver uses to support and guide problem solving can be either internal (residing in working memory) or external (e.g., drawn on paper). In either case, the elements of the representing world may follow a variety of different formats. Some representations are best described as verbal or propositional or declarative. Others are pictorial or diagrammatic, such as a drawing of a pulley system, a matrix or network, and a bar or line graph (see Hegarty, Carpenter, & Just, 1 991, for a discussion of types of diagrammatic representations). Finally, some representations are runnable mental models (e.g., a mental abacus - Stigler, 1984 a system of interlocking gears - Schwartz & Black, 1996).

Characteristics of Affected Individuals

Approximately 95 of affected males have mild to profound MR and some form of communication disorder. Affected males have particular difficulty with processing and short-term memory of serial information. Auditory memory and reception are poor. General language development is delayed relative to intelligence, and specific problems such as perseverations, repetitions, echolalia, cluttered speech, and dysfluencies are often shown. Many fully affected males show an apparently unique complex of behaviors, including stereotypies, particularly hand flapping, gaze aversion, avoidance of touch, hyperactivity, inatten-tiveness, aggression, and anxiety (Meyer & Batshaw, 2002).

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in Schizophrenia

The frontal lobes have played a prominent role in hypotheses of schizophrenia since the conceptualization of the illness. Early functional neuroimaging studies, beginning with Ingvar and Franzen's (1974) seminal finding that patients with schizophrenia had relatively lower blood flow to frontal regions, provided evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes. Changes in blood flow in response to cognitive activation were also first observed in these early studies. A large number of activation studies were published over the past 15 years that report frontal lobe impairment in schizophrenia. The overwhelming majority of these investigations have detected abnormal prefrontal response to a variety of cognitive activities designed to access and or control frontal neural circuitry, particularly working memory. The prefrontal site most commonly affected is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and, until recently, the physiologic abnormality in this brain region was consistently...

Human Amnesia and Animal Models of Hippocampal Function

M. emphasized the global nature of his impairment, an almost complete failure to learn all sorts of new verbal and nonverbal material (see Corkin, 1984 Eichenbaum & Cohen, 2001). Yet H. M.'s remote autobiographical memories and his capacity for short-term memory were completely intact, leading to the initial view that the hippocampal region plays a specific role in the consolidation of short-term memories into long-term memory. More recent work with H. M. and other amnesic patients has shown conclusively that the impairment in acquiring long-term memories is also circumscribed to a particular type of memory expression. Thus, amnesics can normally acquire new motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills and demonstrate normal sensory adaptations and priming of perceptual stimuli and such implicit learning occurs despite the patients' inability to recall or recognize the learning materials or the events of the learning experience. Based on these distinctions, the...

Individual Strategies

Mathematically gifted adolescents also seem to use different strategies than matched controls to solve the mental rotation task. Compared to the control subjects mathematically gifted adolescents additionally activated the right anterior cingulate, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left premotor cortex (O'Boyle et al., 2005). According to O'Boyle et al. these regions represent components of a larger anterior neural system thought to mediate a variety of cognitive control processes relating to general intelligence including spatial attention, working memory, the parsing of executive processes into strategic and evaluative functions, error detection, conflict resolution and the online monitoring of performance. Taken together it is meanwhile accepted that different cognitive strategies are used to solve

General Properties Of Calpains

Together, these data indicate that calpain participates in events linked to calcium-mediated changes in cellular structure and function. Consistent with this concept is evidence for an important role of calpain during neuronal differentiation of PC1216 and SH-SY-5Y cells.18 Similarly consistent are the data supporting the intriguing hypothesis that calpain participates in mediating long term memory by physically altering synaptic strength within the brain.19 Finally, it is interesting that levels of both calpain isozymes fall sharply during early post-natal development (when relatively speaking- most neuronal differentiation has occure).20 One might expect, therefore, that calpain plays an important role in the adult nervous system during axonal sprouting, regeneration, and neurite extension and retraction. Considerably more work will be required, however, before calpain's role in these phenomena might be more clearly established.

Comment And Conclusion

Our results do agree with reported cognitive deficits in the Yu cheng study and the 2 US studies, one in N.Carolina and the other around Lake Michican . In the latter cohort adverse effects ofprenatal PCB exposure were found on short term memory on both verbal and numeric tests at 4 years and on the verbal IQ scores at 11 years of age.

Visual reorientation mental rotation and perspective taking

We tested the abilities of several large subject groups to visualize the direction to objects inside a simulated space station node after large changes in relative viewing angle (Oman et al., 2002 Richards et al., 2003 Shebilske et al., 2006). We consistently found that performance correlated with several well known tests of 2D and 3D mental rotation abilities. Most subjects said that they memorized the environment from a prototypical orientation. Many invented rules to help them mentally reconstruct the space, such as memorizing opposite or adjacent pairs of objects. As with many spatial tasks, performance improved with practice. Most - but not all - eventually performed adequately. Manipulation of the subject's orientation to gravity had little effect on performance, nor did it in Creem's experiments Most subjects described the mental rotation visualization task as something done in your head . Collectively these findings suggest that 3D orientation ability in weightlessness...

What Implicit Implies

Implicit thought on the other hand is unconscious, and the content of a memory is considered to be implicit when it exerts its influence on thought or action even though it cannot be recalled. Claparede (1911 1951) described the classic case of an amnesic patient whom he pricked with a concealed needle in his palm. The patient, of course, forgot what happened almost immediately after the incident in the sense that she no longer had explicit memory for the event or even, for that matter, Claparede. However, when he attempted to shake the patient's hand some days later she, surprisingly, refused exclaiming, One never knows what people carry around in their hands. Experience with this patient, as well as hundreds of others (Cohen & Squire, 1980 Schacter, 1987 Scollville & Milner, 1957), shows that memory for events can influence both thought and behavior even when that memory is no longer available for conscious inspection. Most computational models, in one way or another, have endorsed...

Some Thoughts on Methodology

In the first, Mathews et al. (1989) had experimental subjects engage in an implicit learning task over a four-day period. The study used what is known as an artificial grammar (AG). An example of a typical AG is given in Figure 18.1 along with several letter strings that it can generate and a number of nongrammatical or not well-formed strings that contain a single letter violation. It is apparent that the system is complex and, as Mathews et al., found, not easy to describe. In the canonical AG learning study, subjects memorize a number (perhaps 15 or 20) of exemplary letter strings and then, using what knowledge they acquired from the learning phase, attempt to distinguish Later studies, however, questioned this conclusion. Eich (1984) presented subjects with homophones such as fare fair in one ear and a modifier of the less frequent meaning (e.g., taxi ) in the other. Subjects were then given a recognition test for the modifiers and were asked to spell the target words ( fare or...

Abstraction and Implicit Thought

Exploring these considerations has become a virtual cottage industry. Toth and Reingold (1996) present an overview of the work using priming, and Kirsner (1998) provides a review of the implicit memory literature. Both suggest that, although the issues are complex, implicitly encoded material shows both abstract and instance-based representations. Here we review a topic that focuses directly on the issue, transfer in AG learning. Unlike the study of implicit memory using priming or stem completion in which the stimulus materials tend to be The original claim (Reber, 1967, 1969) was that the representations established while memorizing exemplars from an AG like that shown in Figure 18.1 are based on the rules of the grammar and, hence, are abstract and independent of the surface features of the stimuli. This claim did not go uncontested. Brooks and Vokey (1991), Du-lany, Carlson and Dewey (1984), Perruchet and Pacteau (1991), and Shanks and St. John (1 994) all argued that subjects'...

Marijuana Related Problems

The lay and scientific communities have questioned both the addictive potential and the harm that may be associated with marijuana use or abuse. However, recent research indicates that misuse of marijuana can have significant psychosocial and perhaps adverse medical consequences. Acute marijuana use typically produces a mild euphoric state that affects sensory awareness, perception of time, appetite, mood, short-term memory, concentration, attention, motor coordination, blood pressure, and heart rate. These effects are dose dependent and vary greatly across individuals. Such effects are typically not as debilitating as those observed with other substances of abuse (e.g., alcohol, narcotics), but nonetheless can increase the risk of accidents and mistakes when performing physical or mental activities.

From Stereotyped Behavior To Spatial Memory A Historical Detour

Episodic memory has very specific properties leading to the capacity to behave in a particular way because we remember a prior event and not (only) because this event has happened (Morris, 2001). As discussed by Morris (see also Martin and Morris, 2002), this condition of an explicit memory is hardly met in animal work, even in the elegant experiment by Clayton and Dickinson (1998) in which jays decide where to orient their search for food depending on a memory of what they have eaten, where and when.

Memory Stress And Problem Solving

Mandler (1979) suggested that elaboration illustrates the complexity of interstructural links that are developed in the process of encoding, and that these links provide better access at the time of retrieval. These findings about memory and storage retrieval suggest that the restriction of conscious capacity that occurs as a result of stress could have obvious effects on memory functions. Under conditions of stress we tend to remember fewer things that occur and these less well thus, events will be less elaborately coded under stress. Anecdotal evidence, at least, supports this hypothesis. Unfortunately, there is little experimental evidence on the effects of stress on complex storage and retrieval processes. Available data tend to be rather dated and are limited to supporting the point that stress (frequently defined as failure) impairs memory. The only extensive set of data concerns the effect of stress on short-term memory, and shows that practically any kind of stress, failure...

Orientation Attention and Vigilance

Tests of span capacity are a more standard form of assessing attention and vigilance than reaction time measures. In addition to assessing attention, span tests also require some form of short-term memory. However, forward span tests (discussed below) are thought to be more reflective of attentional abilities. When backward span (repeating a sequence heard in the reverse order of presentation) is used, different cognitive processes are required, including working (or responds with the number 8. The patient then adds the second two numbers (7 + 5) and responds with the number 12. The patient then adds the third two numbers (5 + 4) and responds with the number 9. This continues for a total of 61 numbers presented in a random order. The test can be given at different rates of presentation ranging from a slow rate of one number every 2.4 seconds to the fastest rate of one number every 1.2 seconds. This test assesses attention and vigilance because the patient is required to...

Consequences for Cognitive Theories of Reasoning

Logic theory implicates the syntactic component of language in logical reasoning. Our studies activate both the syntactic and semantic systems and components of long-term memory. Our results do seem compatible with some form of dual mechanism theory, which explicitly predicts a dissociation. However, as noted, this theory comes in various flavors and some advocates may not be keen to accept our conclusions. The distinction that our results point to is between reasoning with familiar, conceptually coherent material versus unfamiliar, nonconcep-tual, or incoherent material. The former engages a left frontal-temporal system (language and long-term memory) whereas the latter engages a bilateral parietal (visuospa-tial) system. Given the primacy of belief bias over effortful thinking (Sloman, 1996), we believe that the frontal-temporal system is more basic and effortlessly engaged. It has temporal priority. By contrast, the parietal system is effortfully engaged when the frontal-temporal...

Comparing Different Cognitive Functions Within Subjects

Not compare apples and oranges, one may miss the fact that they are both round and sweet fruits. Second, some functions are inherently more difficult than others. For example, in the case of working memory and episodic memory, if the memory load is kept constant (e.g., one word), then retrieval from working memory is always easier than retrieval from long-term memory. In these situations, one is faced with the dilemma of matching experimental conditions at the expense of having differences in task difficulty or matching task difficulty at the expense of introducing differences in experimental conditions. Despite all these problems, successful direct cross-function studies can be designed, and they offer unique insights into the role of different brain regions across various functions. The next two sections review comparisons of different functions within-subjects (see Table 3). The first section reviews studies that used blocked fMRI and PET designs, and the second section reviews...

Cognitive Function Assessed

Attention concentration Processing speed Calculations Attention concentration Verbal short-term memory Attention concentration Spatial short-term memory Cognitive Function Assessed Verbal delayed memory Verbal learning Executive function ( ) Verbal delayed memory Verbal learning Nonverbal delayed memory Nonverbal learning Nonverbal delayed memory Nonverbal learning Construction Memory Index form the General Memory Index.

Studies of Information Processing Deficits Related to Formal Thought Disorder

Aside from this evidence of a relatively minor contribution to the expression of formal thought disorder, the first deficit shown by Kerns and Berenbaum (2002) to contribute significantly to thought disorder involves semantic memory functioning relatively distinct from automatic spreading of activation, such as impairment of controlled retrieval of information from semantic memory, which may itself have an abnormal netware structure (because of the cumulative effects of a chronic inability to encode semantic information, for instance). Relevant studies (e.g., Allen et al., 1993 Goldberg et al., 1998 Kerns et al., 1999) tend to employ fluency tasks requiring retrieval of information from semantic memory by means such as a controlled implementation of retrieval strategy (Ruff et al., 1997). In agreement with conclusions offered by Minzenberg, Ober, & Vinogradov (2002) and by Baving and colleagues (2001), all of whom argue that semantic retrieval is most consistently and robustly...

Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Activity

Most consistently, PET and fMRI studies have shown that working memory and attention deficits in schizophrenia subjects are associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (Velakoulis and Pantelis, 1996). In addition, several studies (Heckers et al., 1999 Lahti et al., 2001) have shown that patients with deficit schizophrenia have greater hypofrontality than patients with nondeficit schizophrenia, further supporting the concept of schizophrenia as a heterogeneous disease. Holcomb and colleagues (2000) showed that the anterior cingulate cortex is less activated in patients with schizophrenia than in normal volunteers during performance of a difficult cognitive task (see Fig. 9.4). In PET studies, patients with schizophrenia also exhibited abnormal activation of cortical areas such as the frontal eye fields. This occurred during other functions that are known to be abnormal in this patient population, including...

Place learning the default option

Position in a circular pool of opaque water. To meet the requirement for place learning in this situation, they must reach the escape position with help of distant information only, with little training, following a direct path from any starting position in the pool. In addition, the normal rats spend a significant amount of time searching on its exact position when the escape platform is absent. They can also memorize a new escape position in the same environment following one demonstration trial only. Rats with hippocampal lesions are unable to satisfy the third criterion and require a special training procedure to meet the two first conditions.

Neural System Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

Although neither the specific neurobiolog-ical processes associated with the expression of formal thought disorder nor those associated with psychosis in general have been definitively isolated, disturbances in prefrontal and temporo-limbic systems and their interconnections are likely to play critical roles in both (Cohen & Servan-Schreiber, 1992 Grace & Moore, 1998 Gray et al., 1 991). The prefrontal cortex is thought to support higher-order cognitive processes such as working memory, the strategic allocation of attention, reasoning, planning, and Neuropsychological studies have shown that, against a background of generalized information processing impairment, schizophrenia patients manifest profound deficits in the areas of long-term and working memory (Cannon et al., 2000 Saykin et al., 1994). These deficits appear not to be merely secondary effects of impaired attention, disease chronicity, or medication exposure (Cirillo & Seidman, 2003). Such findings have been corroborated by...

Prefrontal Cortex and Working Memory Deficits

Several lines of evidence suggest that working-memory deficits and associated abnormalities in prefrontal cortical structure and function are reflective of an inherited diathesis to schizophrenia. In a Finnish twin sample, we found that impaired performance on tests of spatial working-memory capacity and structural abnormalities in polar and dorsolateral prefrontal regions varied in a dose-dependent fashion with degree of genetic loading for schizophrenia (Cannon et al., 2000 Cannon et al., 2002 Glahn et al., 2002). Interestingly, global and dor-solateral prefrontal volumetric deficits have been found to correlate with performance deficits on tests sensitive to diverse working-memory processes (Maher et al., 1995 Seidman et al., 1994). The nature of the pathological mechanism underlying these correlations is not necessarily obvious, however. Rather than a loss of neurons or in-terneurons, it has been suggested that gross gray matter volume decrements reflect a reduction of...

Integrating Cognitive Models and Endophenotypes

It appears possible to unify components of the two cognitive models of disrupted information processing in schizophrenia patients and the findings related specifically to formal thought disorder reviewed in the first part of this chapter with the research on neurocog-nitive endophenotypes in schizophrenia just summarized. At the cognitive level of analysis, two mechanisms appear to be necessary for the expression of formal thought disorder an executive, online processing system responsible for encoding, maintaining, and updating of goal-related information (context information in Cohen's and Braver's model) and an integrated system involving the retrieval of information from semantic memory and its fluid integration into verbal behavior (i.e., the key component of Hemsley's and Gray's model). In terms of the endophenotype framework described previously, individuals at elevated genetic risk but not expressing the schizophrenia phenotype show mildly impaired functioning of executive...

Information Processing Theories

An attempt to conceptualize development of thinking in terms of information processing concepts was made by what became known as the Neo-Piagetian school (Case, 1985, 1992a Case etal., 1996 Chapman, 1987, 1990 Fischer, 1980 Halford, 1982, 1993 McLaughlin, 1963 Pascual-Leone, 1970 Pascual-Leone & Smith, 1969). These models, reviewed in detail by Halford (2002), reconceptualize Piaget's stages in terms of the information processing demands they make. All of them postulate that higher information processing capacity becomes available with development either through maturation (Halford, 1993) or increased processing efficiency that leaves more capacity available for working memory (Case, 1985). Note that these processes are not mutually exclusive. Chapman and Lindenberger (1989, p. 238) attempted to synthesize these theories under the principle that the total capacity requirement of a given form of reasoning is equal to the number of operatory variables that are assigned values...

Olfaction in Neurological Disorders

Studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) report reductions in olfactory acuity in patients with right temporal lobectomies (Martinez et al., 1993), while olfactory recognition, discrimination, and short-term memory ability are impaired in patients presurgery (Jones-Gotman et al., 1997 Martinez et al., 1993). Discrimination and short-term memory deficits are greater after temporal lobectomy (Martinez et al., 1993). Olfactory identification is relatively preserved in TLE patients presurgery however, deficits are observed in lobectomized patients with lesions involving the OFC (Jones-Gotman & Zatorre, 1993).

On A Spatiotemporal Framework

Along this chapter, we have proposed several evidence of a modular function of the hippocampus. The hippocampal formation is composed by different substructures, each one with a different functional organization the pyramidal fields CA1 and CA3, the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. It has been known for many years that selective lesions of a substructure of the hippocampal formation affect specific components of spatial memory. Impaired local searching with preserved approach accuracy followed lesions of the entorhinal cortex, a main source of afferences to the dentate gyrus and hippocampal fields (Schenk and Morris, 1985). Preserved short term but not long term memory was related to lesions of the subiculum (Morris et al., 1990). Following selective hippocampal lesions, place learning was preserved in conditions of massed training, but not following single trial sessions (Morris et al., 1990 Whishaw et al., 1995).

Specific properties of each channel

A double dissociation has been induced by selective lesions of the CA3 or CA1 fields (Gilbert et al., 2001). In this work, the CA3 field appeared critical for spatial pattern separation (i.e., fine direction discrimination), whereas the field CA1 was more implicated in temporal pattern separation. Selective lesions of the CA3 region impair spatial separation and working memory (Gilbert and Kesner, 2006 Kesner et al., 2004 Lee et al., 2005).

Transitivity and Serial Order

A derivative of the Bryant and Trabasso (1971) paradigm, transitivity of choice, has found wide use in animal studies (Boysen et al., 1993 Chalmers & McGonigle, 1984 von Fersen et al., 1991 McGonigle & Chalmers, 1977 Terrace & McGonigle, 1994). Participants are trained to choose one member of each pair in a series. For example, they are rewarded for choosing A in preference to B, B in preference to C, C in preference to D, and D in preference to E. Transitivity of choice is indicated by choice of B in preference to D. However, whereas transitive inference implies an ordinal scale of premise elements, in transitivity of choice there is no such scale (Markovits & Dumas, 1992). Furthermore, whereas the transitive inference task is performed dynamically in working memory, following a single presentation of premises, the premise pairs in transitivity of choice are learned incrementally over many trials, and the task can be performed by associative processes (Wynne, 1 995). Although both...

Thyroid Disease in a Person with Alzheimers Disease

In Alzheimer's disease, the ability to understand, think, remember, and communicate can be severely diminished or lost. The ability to make decisions and perform simple tasks is also diminished or lost. Confusion and memory loss (initially short-term memory) occurs, and, in late stages of the disease, the ability to communicate at all can be lost. Clearly, taking medications, particularly thyroid hormone (see Chapter 10) is a risky proposition. Preparing properly for scans (see Chapters 2 and 12) or any complex diagnostic test can no longer be managed by the person with Alzheimer's. These tasks must be taken over by a third person who is a surrogate decision maker (see Chapter 21). Management goals may need to be tailored to suit the realistic quality of life of the affected person.

Cheryl Y Trepagnier1 Beth Mineo Mollica2 Sheela Stuart3 and Carole W Brown4

Many people with autism demonstrate strengths in the area of visuo-spatial and visual memory skills, and clinicians and investigators have long advocated Mental load The additional cognitive demands that device operation places on the communicator are a problem not only for people with cognitive disabilities but for all augmentative users. A useful analogy might be that of speaking a language one does not know very well. It is not difficult to imagine that passing an interview, meeting a new colleague or communicating in an emotionally fraught interaction would be all the more difficult if one had to do so using a language one does not know well. Investigators recognize and are striving to address the need to minimize demands on working memory and attention, so that the augmentative technique

Information Metabolism in Interpersonal Contacts 31 Introduction

This section aims to present a concise presentation of the information metabolism as a model that helps in the understanding of human experiences. The model is complementary to the computational models of information processing applied in cognitive psychology. These models include neurophysiological processes such as working memory, production memory, and declarative memory, storage, retrieval, execution match, encoding, and performances, whereas information metabolism focuses on mental phenomena. The interpersonal version of the information metabolism model illustrates the main mental structures, including their multileveled organization, as well as interpersonal interaction on those levels.

Reading Disabilities Assessment

The first major area that should be assessed is general intellectual ability, for which the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) is one recommended instrument. Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed based on WISC-III scores, but there are some score patterns and some qualitative observations that can be helpful. Specifically, scores are often somewhat weaker on the Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, which both require verbal working memory among other capacities. On the Performance scale, the Coding subtest, which requires learning a new symbolic code and good visuomotor skill, is often somewhat weak. Qualitatively, word-finding difficulties are often evident on the Picture Completion subtest as the child may correctly locate the missing element in the picture but be unable to provide the name quickly. Likewise, on the Information subtest, it is not uncommon for the child to make errors on relatively easier items where specific names of people or months are required, even...

Phase Oriented Treatment

This capacity needs to be present before people are ready to be exposed to their traumatic memories. Desensitization, or association of the traumatic imprints to autobiographical memory, is not possible as long as intense emotions overwhelm the victim, just as they did at the time of the original trauma. When traumatized individuals feel out of control and unable to modulate their distress, they are vulnerable to pathological self-soothing behaviors, such as substance abuse, binge eating, self-injury, or clinging to potentially dangerous partners (van der Kolk et al., 1996).

Brief History of Research on Scientific Thinking

Scientist might want to discover which substances undergo fission when bombarded by neutrons and which substances do not. Here, scientists have to discover the attributes that make a substance undergo fission. Bruner et al. (1956) saw scientific thinking as the testing of hypotheses and collecting of data with the end goal of determining whether something is a member of a category or not. They invented a paradigm in which people were required to formulate hypotheses and collect data that test their hypotheses. Using this approach, Bruner et al. identified a number of strategies people use to formulate and test hypotheses. They found that a key factor determining which hypothesis testing strategy people use is the amount of memory capacity the strategy takes up (see also Morrison, Chap. 19, on working memory). Another key factor they discovered was that it is much more difficult for people to discover negative concepts (e.g., not blue) than positive concepts (e.g., blue). Although the...

Scientific Thinking as Hypothesis Testing

Potentially disconfirm their hypothesis. Tweney and his colleagues provide an excellent overview of this phenomenon in their classic monograph On Scientific Thinking (1981). The precise reasons for this type of block are still widely debated. Researchers such as Michael Doherty have argued that limitations in working memory make it difficult for people to consider more than one hypothesis. Consistent with this view, Dunbar and Sussman (1 995) showed that when participants are asked to hold irrelevant items in working memory while testing hypotheses, participants are unable to switch hypotheses in the face of inconsistent evidence (see also Morrison, Chap. 19, on working memory). Although limitations of working memory are involved in the phenomenon of confirmation bias, even groups of scientists can display confirmation bias. The recent controversies over cold fusion are an example of confirmation bias. Here, large groups of scientists had other hypotheses available to explain their...

Visuospatial Shortterm Memory

Ing studies show that spatial, visuospatial, and verbal working memory tasks produce an overlapping and distributed pattern of activations, with a fractionation of working memory processes between dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal regions, depending upon the executive demands of a task.348 Working memory can handle a limited number of channels of related information, which is the clinical basis for digit span and delayed matching-to-sample tests. Executive processes, which often operate on the contents of short-term working memory, are also managed in the frontal lobes, primarily in prefrontal cortex. Executive cognition (1) focuses attention on relevant information and inhibits irrelevant stimuli (2) manages tasks, which may require switching or dividing attention from one task or stimulus to another (3) plans the sequence of subtasks that may accomplish a goal and (4) codes time and place and monitors the steps of a working memory task.349 Prefrontal cortex extracts information...

Cognitive Deficit Alleviated By Physiological Stimulations

Results of this patient are similar to those reported in others experimental conditions. In all cases vestibular activation did not change the right side performances. This means that it does not act through a non-specific mechanism of increased arousal which would also increase the scores on the right side. The possibility that it would produce a global activation of the right hemisphere and decrease an imbalance between the two hemispheres has to be rejected too, in the absence of a decrease of the right side scores. Thus the reversibility of representational neglect through vestibular stimulation does not support the hypothesis that unilateral neglect could be due to an imbalance between two concurrent systems of lateral attention (Kinsbourne, 1987). Moreover the lack of repeated items during mental evocation on both conditions suggests also that patients did not mentally revisit the same locations and that the geographic representational deficit does not rely on a trans-saccadic...

Causal Reasoning in Medicine

Running a mental model is a potentially powerful form of reasoning but it is also cognitively demanding. It may require an extended chain of reasoning and the use of complex representations. It is apparent that skilled individuals learn to circumvent long chains of reasoning and chunk or compile knowledge across intermediate states of inference (Chandrasekaran, 1 994 Newell, 1990). This results in shorter, more direct, inferences that are stored in long-term memory and are directly available to be retrieved in the appropriate contexts. Chandrasekaran (1 994) refers to this sort of knowledge as compiled causal knowledge. This term refers to knowledge of causal expectations that people compile directly from experience and partly by chunking results from previous problem-solving endeavors. The goals of the individual and the demands of recurring situations largely determine which pieces of knowledge get stored and used. When physicians are confronted with a similar situation, they can...

Auditory projections to prefrontal cortex

Matched frequency regions of the three belt areas after these had been physiologically mapped. Injections into area AL produced label in ventrolateral and orbital regions of prefrontal cortex (areas 10, 12), whereas CL injections led to labeling of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (areas 8a, 46). The latter is known for its involvement in spatial working memory, whereas the former regions are assumed to participate in object working memory (Goldman-Rakic, 1996).

Topdown Control During Spatial and Feature Attention

Regions of the frontoparietal network were commonly activated by the spatial and non-spatial cues in this task (not shown). This similarity in the patterns of activity likely reflects those aspects of the task that the two orienting conditions had in common. This should include low-level sensory processing of the cues, extraction of the linguistic information represented in the cue letter, mapping that information to the relevant task instruction (i.e., letter L means attend left visual field, etc.), executing the task instruction (i.e., selectively preparing attention for processing location or color), maintaining relevant information during the cue-target interval, and preparing to respond. The notion that portions of the frontoparietal network generalize over multiple dimensions is consistent with recent models of top-down attentional control (Corbetta and Shulman, 2002 Shulman et al., 2002). However, overlap in common mental operations across two complex tasks that involve...

Higher Order Processes

Selective attention have attempted to specify the functional level at which information is selected for or rejected from further processing (Johnston and Dark, 1986 Kahneman and Treisman, 1984). Early selection theories (e.g., Broadbent, 1958 Treisman and Geffen, 1967) have proposed that irrelevant information can be rejected before the semantic analysis of the stimulus, i.e., attention operates at the sensory or perceptual level. Late selection theories, in contrast, propose that selection occurs after both the physical and semantic analysis of all stimuli impinging on an organism (e.g., Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963). According to this view, stimuli automatically activate nodes in long-term memory attention in this case operates at the level of decision or response processes (Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963 Shiffrin and Schneider, 1984 Hoffman, 1978 Posner et al., 1980). Working Memory working memory associated with correct performance. The timing between these structures differed according...

Models of Human Development

Of course, developmental psychology has evolved greatly since the days of Vygotsky and Piaget. For example, the past half century has seen development explained in terms of expansion in, and more efficient use of, working memory (e.g., Case, 1985 Fischer, 1980 Pascual-Leone, 1978) semi-independent courses of development traced in different domains (e.g., Case, 1992 Fischer, 1980 Carey, 1985) strands of

Current Status of the Model

Many advances have been made since the 19th century in our understanding of language processing, and it is not clear that the Wernicke-Lichtheim model in its simple form can accommodate this information. For example, the model has almost nothing to say about syntactic processes or about how spoken or written nonsense words ( brillig, slithy, toves ) are perceived and pronounced. Empirical observations not accounted for include a variety of context effects in letter and phoneme perception, spared language abilities in auditory or visual modalities, comprehension disturbances in patients with frontal lesions, word frequency effects and short-term memory phenomena in conduction aphasia, spelling regularity and lexicality effects in reading and writing, category-specific naming and comprehension disturbances, and so on. Underlying these difficulties is the fact that the model itself contains little in the way of explicit detail regarding how various transformations sound to word, print to...

Tower Of Hanoi Problem

Ory) for the mental manipulation of disk configurations. It also requires spatial long-term memory for the retention of move sequences. In normal subjects, a measure of spatial ability has, among several cognitive variables, been found to correlate highest with the time required to solve the four-disk problem. In amnesiac patients, performance was highly correlated with residual declarative memory capacity (Schmidtke, Handschu, & Vollmer, 1996). It is furthermore assumed that performance depends on frontal lobe or executive function. Patients with lesions to the frontal lobe of the brain were reported to require more time and moves to solve the Tower of Hanoi, as well as related problems derived from it. The deficit of these patients has been assigned to deficits of planning and to an inability to resolve goalsubgoal conflicts (Goel & Grafman, 1995 Morris, Miotto, Feigenbaum, Bullock, & Polkey, 1997). The Tower of Hanoi problem is sensitive but not specific to prefrontal dysfunction....

Disintegration of Experience Accompanying PTSD

In a series of studies we demonstrated that memories of trauma initially tend to have few autobiographical elements When PTSD patients have their flashbacks, the trauma is relived as isolated sensory, emotional, and motoric imprints, without much of a storyline. We have shown this in victims of childhood abuse (van der Kolk and Fisler, 1995), assaults, and accidents in adulthood (van der Kolk et al., 1997) and in patients who gained awareness during surgical procedures (van der Kolk et al., 2000). These studies support the notion that traumatic memories result from a failure of the CNS to synthesize the sensations related to the event into an integrated semantic memory. While most patients with PTSD construct a narrative of their trauma over time, it is characteristic of PTSD that sensory elements of the trauma itself continue to intrude as flashbacks and nightmares, in states of consciousness where the trauma is relived, unintegrated with an overall sense of current time, place, and...

Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

Prolonged SD produces reversible neurologic signs such as slurred speech, hand tremor, ptosis, nystagmus and abnormal corneal, gag, and deep tendon reflexes (61,62). Sleep loss also affects immediate recall and short-term memory, causing memory deficits on testing similar to that seen with alcohol intoxication and aging, postulated to be due to impaired encoding and retrieval of information (55,63). On positron emission tomography studies, 24-hour SD resulted in a global decline in brain activity, most marked in the thalamus and prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, areas mediating attention, and higher-order cognitive processes (64).

Conceptual Learning And Development

A concept has been attained at the concrete level when the learner recognizes an item (e.g., a clock on the wall) as the same one previously encountered in the identical spatial context or other context in which it was initially encountered. The mental operations involved in attaining a concept at the concrete level are selectively attending to an item, discriminating the item as an entity different from its surroundings, representing the item in long-term memory, attending to the item when it is again encountered in the identical context, retrieving the representation, and using it in recognizing the item as the same one encountered earlier.

Cortical Versus Subcortical Dementing Syndromes

When measured formally, impairments in speed of mental processing, working memory, reasoning, and strategic memory (e.g., recall) are evident in nondemented patients with striatal diseases, including patients with early Parkinson's disease. y These deficits are highly intercorrelated, suggesting that they reflect a family of interacting memory processes mediated by frontostriatal neural circuits. In nondemented patients, these deficits may be circumscribed, and the patients perform normally on tests of immediate memory, semantic memory, nonstrategic declarative memory (recognition), and language. When dementia develops in a patient with a subcortical disease, problems in speed of mental processing, working memory, reasoning, and strategic memory then become disproportionately severe relative to other problems in language or memory. The disproportionate deficit in strategic memory may be contrasted with the more proportionate and global declarative memory deficits (e.g., recall and...

Side Effects of Antidepressants

Antimuscarinic cholinergic properties cause dry mouth, dental caries (due to dry mouth), blurred vision, constipation, sinus tachycardia, urinary retention, and memory loss and confusion. The most serious of these effects is the possibility of an anticholin-ergic delirium (atropine psychosis). This is usually associated with elevated plasma levels of TCA drugs but can be seen at therapeutic blood levels. Typical symptoms include impaired short-term memory, confusion, and peripheral signs of anticholiner-gic activity such as dry mouth, enlarged pupils, and dry skin. Older patients seem to

Syndromes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Caudate hemorrhages can cause headache, nausea, vomiting, meningismus, confusion, and decreased short-term memory. y Findings that are variably present include a transient contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, contralateral hemiparesis, transient hemisensory deficits, and, rarely, ipsilateral Horner's syndrome.

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