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Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Continue reading...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Cosmetics For The Physician

Classification , .of .Cosmetics Toiletries The complete physician is asked questions regarding skin care every day. People will always seek ways to enhance their appearance with cleansing products, moisturizing products, color cosmetics, and fragrance. These products are important for the care of skin, hair, and nails, and they contribute to a sense of well-being and self-esteem. It is important to know how cosmetics function, which products cause adverse reactions, and how we can recommend them for the better care of our patients. To better understand the definition and labeling of cosmetics, it would be well to review their definition, labeling, and the regulations concerning them. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines cosmetics as (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles...

Heredity Factors and Traits

In a homologous chromosome pair, the two copies of a gene can exist in three types of combinations 2 dominant alleles, 1 dominant and 1 recessive, or 2 recessives. Dominant alleles are designated by capital letters, and recessive alleles by the same letter but in lower case. For example, the shape of a pea seed is determined by the presence of the R gene. The dominant form of the gene is R , and the recessive form of the gene is designated as r . The homologous combination of the alleles can be one of the following (1) RR (both dominant), (2) Rr (one dominant, one recessive) or (3) rr (both recessive). This genetic makeup of a heredity factor is called the genotype. A dominant allele is the form of a gene that is always expressed, while a recessive allele is suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele. Hence, in the case of the genotypes RR and Rr, the pea seeds acquire a round shape, and a genotype of rr will give a wrinkled seed. The observed appearance from the expression of a...

How to test for cosmetic allergy

The items on the standard tray and the TRUE test that apply to cosmetics include imidazolidinyl urea, wool (lanolin) alcohols, p-phenylenediamine, thimerosal, formaldehyde, colophony, quaternium 15, balsam of Peru, and cinnamic aldehyde. The cosmetics that can be tested without dilution are antiperspirants, blushes, eye liners, eye shadow, foundations, lipstick, moisturizers, perfumes, and sunscreens. The cosmetics that are volatile and need to be allowed to dry on the patch or chamber before 48-hour occlusion are liquid eyeliner, mascara, and nail enamel. The cosmetics that need to be diluted for testing are soaps, shampoos, shaving preparations, hair dyes, and permanent solutions, These may need open patch testing or usage testing. In conclusion, cosmetics are an important part of dermatology. The physician should know how they are used, what their components are , and how best to explain them to the patient. Maibach HI, Engasser PG. Dermatitis due to cosmetics. In Fischer AA, ed....

Cerebral Localization

During the Renaissance, as scientists returned to dissection and experimentation, observation began to replace conjecture. Leonardo Da Vinci (1472-1519) made molds of the ventricles to reveal their shape, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) showed that the ventricles vary little across mammals. Consequently, the idea of ventricular localization slowly gave way, and increased attention began to be given to differences in the size and makeup of the brain itself.

Trying Out a New Tool

The next step was to find out more about this particular coro-navirus. To do that, WHO researchers sent samples of the virus to a laboratory at the University of California in San Francisco. Doctors there have a new tool called a DNA microarray, with which they can pinpoint a virus by examining a fragment of its genetic makeup.

The Impact Of Research On Patient Care

10.26 The genetic makeup of an individual may determine how effective a particular medicine is and the risk of adverse side effects. Research in this area, known as pharmacogenetics, is accelerating as a result of the Human Genome Project. Genes affecting the metabolism of more than twenty drugs, including anti-cancer agents, have been identified.

Frustrating Mutations

Holmes and other experts believe it is likely that an animal virus mutated, and its protein spikes changed in such a way that they could latch onto human cells. Perhaps the barbs on the spikes altered in mutation, enabling them to be more of a threat to a human host. Researchers working on mapping the virus's genetic makeup support that theory, for in twelve different laboratories, twelve genetic profiles have been noted.

Gender Similarities and Differences

Two studies that examined gender-related aspects of BDD found that the clinical features of the disorder appear to be similar in men and women. One of these studies (N 188) found, however, that women were more likely than men to focus on their hips and weight, camouflage with makeup and pick their skin, and have comorbid bulimia nervosa (Phillips and Diaz 1997). In addition, the study found that men were more likely to be unmarried be preoccupied with body build, genitals, and hair thinning use a hat for camouflage and have alcohol abuse or dependence. In the other study (N 58), women were more likely to focus on their breasts and legs, check mirrors and camouflage, and have bulimia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder men were more likely to focus on their genitals, height, and excessive body hair, and have bipolar disorder (Perugi et al. 1997a).

Cross Cultural Aspects

Son, applied and reapplied makeup for hours a day, excessively washed her face, covered her face with her hand, and tweezed and cut her facial hair. As a result of her appearance concerns, she had dropped out of high school and then college. She avoided friends and most social interactions. Ms. A felt chronically suicidal and had attempted suicide twice because, as she stated, I'm too ugly to go on living.

Allergic Contact Reactions

It may be that up to 1.5 billion dollars is spent per year in the United States for nail products and nail services. Considering the number of nail cosmetics used, contact dermatitis is not common and allergic reactions to nail cosmetics probably account for only 8 to 13 of all cosmetic contact dermatitis. The usual culprits for contact dermatitis in nail cosmetics are methacrylates in sculptured nails and cyanoacrylates in nail glues. These reactions usually cause onycholysis (lifting up of the nail plate from the nail bed distally) and paronychia, which can be quite painful and disfiguring. The pain in the nail may persist long after the nail dystrophy has healed. Sometimes an irritant reaction or a secondary yeast infection is responsible for the nail dystrophy rather than a true contact dermatitis.

Application of a simplified method for the determination of total oxalate soluble pectin content in fruit and vegetables

Increase in free pectin carboxyl groups might be expected to increase the importance of calcium as a firmness increasing agent (Van Buren, 1979). Calcium binding agents, such as solutions of oxalate, ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or polyphosphate, have been used to extract pectic acid from fruits (Pilnik and Voragen, 1971). For example, solutions of oxalic acid and ammonium oxalate are used to extract the pectic acid in the form of OSP. Oxalate soluble pectin exists as pectic acid which could bind calcium and form a cross-link structure (Yu et al., 1996). Researchers using various methods to extract OSP have reported differing quantites of OSP which might not represent the total. This gave rise to differences in or misinterpretations of the data, such as different correlations between pectin content and fruit firmness, contrasting comparisons of the solubilization of different kinds of pectin and so on. Moreover the time required to completely extract the pectin was possibly...

Mapping the Human Genome

Even in an undisturbed cell nucleus, a certain amount of snipping and splicing of DNA segments take place. With the growth in knowledge about the makeup and locations of various genes, scientists have learned how to do the snipping and splicing deliberately to modify an organism's genome.

Huntingtons Disease

In addition to taking a complete family history, blood should be drawn for DNA testing. Careful counseling about the implications of the diagnosis is essential when working with patients who are at risk for the disease. Issues of privacy are particularly important because giving subjects positive diagnostic information reveals information about the parents' genetic makeup. MR scans can detect the presence of caudate and cerebral atrophy. When the family history is in doubt, an assiduous search of autopsy reports on relatives can sometimes unearth the diagnosis in the genealogy.

Industrial Applications

Other industries have also utilized non-aqueous conditions for their biotechno-logical application, and this literature base can be applied to pharmaceutical applications. For example, industrial enzymes have been used for detergents, textiles, food production, dairy, animal feed, leather, bioremediation, paper, cosmetics and diagnostics (Matsuura et al., 1993 Dai and Klibanov, 1999 Laboret and Perraud, 1999 Stevenson, 1999 Loughlan and Hawkes, 2000 Gonzales-Navarro et al., 2001 Schmid et al., 2001 Secundo and Carrea, 2003 Kuntz et al., 2003 Sardessai and Bhosle, 2003 Gupta et al., 2004 Houde et al., 2004 Sardessai and Bhosle, 2004 Spreti et al., 2004).

Characteristics of extract components

Taxinines A, H, K, and L were isolated from T. cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. (Tachibana et al., 1994), Ginkgetin, isorhamnetin, quercetin, tasinine, and taxinine B were isolated from the needles of T. cuspidata var. nana Rehd (Tachibana et al., 1994). 10-Dacetylbaccatin III is isolated in high yields from fresh needles of T. baccata and is used as an important precursor for synthesizing taxol (Ojima et al., 1991). Cephalomannine (John et al., 1996), which is used to treat leukemia, was isolated from Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Pezzuto, 1996). The pith of yew trees also contains the pigment rhodoxanthin, which is used as a coloring for foods and cosmetics (Czeczuga, 1986 US Patent, 1969, 1971).

Human Reproductive Cloning

The use of reproductive cloning to relieve infertility would involve risks likely to be ethically unacceptable for human use in the foreseeable future (see paragraph 4.4 above). There are further ethical difficulties about the source of the genetic material that could be used in nuclear replacement to relieve infertility. If the nucleus was derived from one of the parents, this would generate an unbalanced genetic relationship of an entirely unprecedented kind within the family. A child cloned in this way would have a unique set of family relations, as he or she would inherit a complete genetic makeup from one of the parents and have no genetic connection with the other. This complete genetic identity between the child and one parent would constitute a novel situation of which there is no previous experience and there must be uncertainties and doubts about the effects this would have on the family and the child. For these psychological and social reasons, there must be serious...

Parametric Sensitivity

One optimal solution is rarely of interest. The constraint-based optimization method introduced in the last chapter is scalable and can be repeatedly applied for varying environmental and genetic parameters. This scalability has spurred a growing number of analysis methods that have been developed under the constraint-based approach 176 . Here we describe some of the methods that are used to characterize a changing environment and genetic makeup. To date, the focus has been on the steady-state flux distributions, but now this approach is being used to study all allowable concentration 9 and kinetic states 55 and to algorithmatize iterative model-building procedures 33, 86 .

Sexual Orientation Roots Of

One such study of 110 pairs of twins found that half of identical twin brothers of self-identified homosexual men were also homosexual, compared with 22 of fraternal twins and 11 of unrelated adoptive brothers. Separate and additional research in the United States and Australia similarly found a high concordance for homosexuality among identical twins. These data indicate that genetic makeup has a significant influence on male sexual orientation. Among females, studies also show a link between genetics and orientation but not as strong as that for the males.

Maintenance of the SAM

Elegant study used periclinal chimeras of tomato differing in the genetic makeup of meristem cell layers to address this question (Szymkowiak & Sussex 1992). In one experiment, such chimeras were generated by grafting between wild-type tomato plants and the tomato mutant fasciated, which has larger floral meristems and produces more carpels. When the outer two meristem layers were composed of wild-type cells, and only the L3 layer carried the fasciated mutation, the whole floral meristem increased in size and developed extra carpels, indicating that the cells in the L1 and L2 perceived and responded to a size increasing signal from the L3. The molecular basis of this signalling process has not been identified in tomato, but mutants similar to fasciated have been analysed in other species, like Arabidopsis thaliana.

Psychophysiological Correlates of Temperament

In the prescientific period of psychology, the biology of temperament consisted mainly in speculations about relationships between temperament traits and given biological functions, or in relating more or less apparent characteristics, such as physical makeup (see Chapter 1), with temperament. Empirical studies searching for the biological backgrounds of temperament became possible only with the development of psychophysiology, psychological physiology, neuropsychology, and biochemistry. The majority of these studies, published in hundreds of papers, have been conducted during the last decades of this century.

Box 1 Differentiation

As development proceeds beyond the blastocyst, stem cells comprise a progressively decreasing proportion of cells in the embryo, fetus, and human body. However, many, if not most, tissues in the fetus and human body contain stem cells which, in their normal location, have the potential to differentiate into a limited number of specific cell types in order to regenerate the tissue in which they normally reside. These stem cells, described as multipotent, have a more restricted potential than ES cells, in that they normally give rise to some but not all the cell types present in the human body. Extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta and umbilical cord also contain multipotent stem cells with the same genetic makeup as the cells of the embryo.

The Developmental Model of Temperament Rothbart and Derryberry

Selektion Unter Antibiotikatherapie

Rothbart and Derryberry (1981, p. 37 Derryberry & Rothbart, 1984, p. 132), defined temperament as constitutional differences in reactivity and self-regulation. Constitutional refers to the individual's relatively enduring biological makeup influenced over time by heredity, maturation, and experience. Reactivity refers to arousability of the physiological and behavioral systems, which include somatic, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and cognitive reactivity (Rothbart, 1989b, 1991). It is reflected in the response parameters of threshold, latency, intensity, rise, and recovery time. By self-regulation Rothbart and Derryberry meant processes that modulate (facilitate or inhibit) reactivity. These processes include attention, ap

Geriatric dermatology

Geriatric Changes

Although the entire body changes slowly with advancing years, aging of the skin is readily visible and readily noticed by both men and women. If the sale of cosmetics (e.g., moisturizing creams, age spot removers, wrinkle creams, wigs, hair dyes for men and women) is any sign, it would seem obvious that the constant search for the elixir of youth is mainly directed toward maintaining a youthful-looking skin. Consider the interest in retinoic acid (Retin-A, Renova), a-hydroxy acids, chemical peels, botulism toxin, microdermabrasion, and laser skin resurfacing for wrinkles and aging skin. The two most important skin-care strategies to avoid signs of aging are to protect the skin from ultraviolet light and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke.

Hybrid Multiscale Model of Solid Tumour Growth and Invasion Evolution and the Micro environment

Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The importance of tumour cell microenvironment interactions is currently of great interest to both the biological and the modelling communities. In this chapter we present a hybrid discrete-continuum (HDC) mathematical model of tumour invasion that considers the tumour as a collection of many individual cancer cells that interact with and modify the environment through which they grow and migrate. The HDC model we develop focuses on four key variables implicated in the invasion process tumour cells, host tissue (extracellular matrix), matrix-degradative enzymes and oxygen. The model is considered to be hybrid since the latter 3 variables are continuous (i.e. concentrations) and the tumour cells are discrete (i.e. individuals). We shall examine how individual-based cell interactions (with one another...

Proteases In Demyelination In Vivo

The increase in proteolytic enzyme activity in the CNS in EAE also appears to be primarily due to cellular infiltration as it is greatest in the hyperacute localized lesions observed in primates with EAE. The increments are greater in respect of cathepsin A than acid proteinase, reflecting the difference in levels of these enzymes between lymph nodes and brain stem, and are not seen until the onset of symptoms which corresponds to the time of cellular infiltration. Both acid and neutral proteinase levels are increased by approximately 130-180 percent, compared to unaffected areas, while cathepsin A is several-fold greater51. In experimental models of CNS inflammation, in particular EAE, there is in general a correlation between mRNA levels and protein expression of MMPs which is localized to the sites of inflammation 11. The spectrum of MMPs varies according to the cellular nature of the lesion, reflecting the proportions of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages in the...

Biological Causes of Obesity

The physiological cause of obesity is eating more calories than you burn. People gain weight for two reasons they may eat excessively (often excessive amounts of nutritious foods), which results in daily consumption of just too many calories or they may eat moderately, but simply be too inactive for the calories they do ingest. Genetic makeup can predispose some body types to obesity earlier in life because of thrifty genes. But, in general, experts in nutrition agree that genetics plays only a small role in the sharp increase in obesity. Since genetic changes take place over centuries, and our obesity rate has at least doubled since the 1960s, it's fairly obvious that lifestyle

Selected Applications Of Metabonomics

For example, the importance of gut microfloral populations on urine composition has been highlighted by a study in which axenic (germ-free) rats were allowed to acclimatize in normal laboratory conditions and their urine biochemical makeup was monitored for 21 days 43 . Recently, the influence of parasitic infections on urinary metabolite profiles has been elucidated 44 . Many other effects can be distinguished using metabonomics, including male female differences, age-related changes, estrus cycle effects in females, diet, diurnal effects, and interspecies differences and similarities 42 .

Proof of Efficacy Test and Evaluation Methods

In vitro models, which mimic the reaction of in vivo skin, are widely used to test the effects of barrier creams since they are simple, rapid and safe. They are particularly recommended as screening procedures for barrier cream candidates. For example, radiolabelled methods may determine the accurate protective and penetration results even with the lower levels of chemicals because of the sensitivity of radiolabelled counting, whereas animal experiments may be used to generate kinetic data, due to the closer similarity between humans and some animals (pigs and monkeys) in percutaneous absorption and penetration for definite compounds. However, there is no animal existing which could perfectly simulate the penetration of all topical products in humans 17 , and since skin protection products are cosmetics, animal testing has been banned by the Cosmetic Directive. In vitro studies, as the sole proof of efficacy of skin protection products, should be rejected as long as no significant...

Infantchildhoodpuberty Model Of Growth

Growth represents the formation of new tissue, which means that sufficient energy needs to be available to enable the net deposition of protein and water as new tissue6. At all stages oflife and development the potential for growth is determined by the genetic makeup ofthe individual. However,

Exposition To And Health Effects Of Residues In Human Milk

Abstract A great variety of drugs, cosmetics, food ingredients as well as environmental contaminants are secreted with human milk as a result of actual exposure or the accumulated body burden of the mother. Of great concern and least amenable to short-term intervention are persistent substances in the environment with long half-lives in the body due to their lipophilic properties and minimal degradation. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, namely organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are fetotoxic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, some are promoting carcinogens and or interfere with hormonal receptors. They pass the placenta and equilibrate among the lipid compartments of the body including breast milk lipids. Transplacental exposure is more relevant with regard to physical development and cognitive functioning of the child than postnatal exposure via breastmilk. Restrictions for production, use and...

Variation of Blood Gene Expression in Healthy Subjects and Patients

To explore these variations in our data set, we analyzed 14 samples taken on two separate days from seven different healthy donors. A total of 266 genes were selected whose expression varied by a minimum of twofold from the median in at least 2 of the 14 samples, and subjected to unsupervised cluster analysis14 with Genespring 6.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood City, CA). It was anticipated that if the gene expression variation due to temporal or technical factors exceeded inter-individual variation, the cluster analysis would not cluster samples together from the same individual. This would indicate that comparisons between individuals with different diseases might yield meaningless differences. However, if variations in gene expression patterns within individuals at two time points were smaller than inter-individual variations, then the cluster analysis should cluster each individual's two samples together. This would indicate that blood gene expression patterns may reflect the genetic...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CBT is a promising approach for treating BDD. Early case reports indicated a successful outcome with exposure therapy (Marks and Mishan 1988 Schmidt and Harrington 1995), audiovisual self-confrontation (Klages and Hartwich 1982), systematic desen-sitization (Munjack 1978), and cognitive plus behavioral techniques (Cromarty and Marks 1995 Gomez-Perez et al. 1994 Newell and Schrubb 1994). Studies using exposure (e.g., exposing the perceived defect in social situations and preventing avoidance behaviors), response prevention (e.g., helping the patient avoid compulsive behaviors, such as mirror checking), and cognitive restructuring have found these approaches to be effective for a majority of patients. In a report of 5 patients, 4 improved using these techniques in 90-minute sessions 1 or 5 days per week (with the total number of sessions ranging from 12 to 48) (Neziroglu and Yaryura-Tobias 1993). Techniques included covering or removing mirrors, limiting grooming time, stopping use of...

Treatment preliminary procedures

The Hyperbaric Centre shall be provided with a form to hyperbaric treatment aware assent, which shall be signed by patient after the doctor has commented on it with the patient himself. On such event the doctor shall explain all risks related to the treatment, shall explain to the patient that to gain access to the hyperbaric chamber it is essential that he be wearing cotton garments and that it is strictly forbidden to make use of whatever cosmetics or any other product applied to skin

Substantial Evidence

The substantial evidence as required in the Kefaurer-Harris amendments to the Food and Drug and Cosmetics Act in 1962 is defined as the evidence consisting of adequate and well-controlled investigations, including clinical investigations, by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug involved, on the basis of which it could fairly and responsibly be concluded by such experts that the drug will have the effect it purports to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling or proposed labeling thereof. Based on this amendment, the FDA requests that reports of adequate and well-controlled investigations provide the primary basis for determining whether there is substantial evidence to support the claims of new drugs and antibiotics.

Papez Circuit

It is well recognized that the ability to recall and engender memories is intimately linked to the emotional makeup of such memories. Furthermore, several clinical conditions show combined deficits in these domains, suggesting a direct anatomical or physiological interaction of functions. In 1937, the neuroanatomist Papez published a study describing an anatomical circuit that involved a number of central nervous system nuclei and pathways that are important in aspects of memory and emotion. Familiarity with this Papez circuit allows clinicians to think systematically about the overall anatomical foundation of memory and to analyze which elements are involved in different aspects of memory function. The concept of a circuit is particularly important in dealing with memory, since lesions anywhere along the pathway may interrupt memory function, although the coloration of the deficit may be particularly influenced by the specific nuclei or path that is damaged (Fig. 5-1 (Figure Not...

Effects On Children

Once safety has been eliminated as an objection to cloning, the next concern voiced is the psychological well-being of the child. Daniel Callahan, the former director of the Hastings Center Editors note and author of chapter 9 in the volume , argues that engineering someone's entire genetic makeup would compromise his or her right to a unique identity. 15 But no such right has been granted by nature identical twins are born every day as natural clones of each other. Dr. Callahan would have to concede this fact, but he might still argue that just because twins occur naturally does not mean we should create them on purpose.

Salvia sclarea

The oil is also used for its antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, astringent, carminative and deodorant properties. These properties make it useful in the treatment of boils and infections as well as useful in skin care. In cosmetics and toiletries, a clary sage bath is warming and very relaxing. Externally it cools inflammation, and is much used in skin care because of its scent. It is useful for inflamed, normal or over-hydrated skin Tisserand, 1987 .

Compulsive Behaviors

Nearly all individuals with BDD perform repetitive, time-consuming, and compulsive behaviors (Phillips et al. 1994). The usual intent is to examine, improve, seek reassurance about, or hide the perceived defect. Common behaviors are comparing one's appearance with that of others excessively checking the perceived flaw directly in mirrors or in other reflecting surfaces (e.g., windows) excessively grooming (e.g., applying makeup or tweezing, styling, or cutting hair) seeking reassurance about the perceived flaw or attempting to convince others of its ugliness and camouflaging (e.g., with hair, a wig, makeup, body position, sunglasses, a hat or other clothing). To hide their faces, some patients wear a mask or hood over their heads.


Counterstain choice is often subjective. However, it is wise to consider the compatibility of the counterstain with both the color of the substrate and the chemical makeup of the intended mounting medium to obtain quality, archival, highly pho-tographable slides from your reactions.

Living with CAH

1 Where a person has a functioning Y sex chromosome, but the X sex chromosome has an abnormality that causes the body to be incapable of recognizing the androgens (male hormones) produced. As a result the person has some or all of the physical characteristics of a woman, despite having the genetic makeup of a man.

Genetic Identity

Question 3 in the consultation document addressed the issue of genetic identity. In our view, persons are more than their genes, their nature and character being substantially influenced by their nurture and life experiences. Personhood derives from a humanity that is expressed through relationships with others. This is made clear by the unquestionable individuality enjoyed by identical twins, despite their having exactly the same genome, together with the common properties that flow from that. It is clear from this example that the existence of a clone (in this case naturally occurring) is not in itself a threat to an individual's identity. Therefore, the claim that each person is entitled to a unique genetic makeup (i) The right to confidentiality with respect to knowledge of one's genetic makeup. This is a part of the general medical ethical requirement of confidentiality about a patient's health information. We fully support this requirement. (iii) A new kind of right is...

Oils and Waxes

Lotions and ointments as well as other preparations such as baby lotions, sunscreens and cosmetics, and they provide cost effective solvents. Typically incorporated at up to 15 in lotions but at levels up to 95 in ointments, mineral oils comprise a complex mixture of branched alkanes (also termed paraffinics ) and alkylated saturated ring compounds ( napthenics ). These materials are naturally occlusive, providing an additional layer on the stratum corneum surface that can reduce transepidermal water loss, so hydrating the tissue and potentially allowing greater drug delivery as described above for water. However, oils can also provide an additional skin surface barrier to penetration of polar molecules which must traverse this additional barrier, but could provide a reservoir for lipophilic materials on the skin surface when the bulk of the formulation has been removed. Further, mineral oils are also well known moisturising agents, again partly through skin surface occlusion and...


Zhai H, Maibach HI Efficacy of barrier creams (skin protective creams) in Elsner P, Merk HF, Maibach HI (eds) Cosmetics Controlled Efficacy Studies and Regulation. Berlin, Springer, 1999, pp 156-166. Wigger-Alberti W, Elsner P Protective creams in Elsner P, Maibach HI (eds) Cosmeceuticals Drugs versus Cosmetics. New York, Dekker, 2000, pp 189-195. Loden M Moisturizers in Elsner P, Maibach HI (eds) Cosmeceuticals Drugs versus Cosmetics. New York, Dekker, 2000, pp 73-96.


Your face is to be washed twice a day with soap. Do not scrub too roughly. The physician may suggest a particular soap for use. Do not use any face cream, cold cream, cleansing cream, nourishing cream, or any other kind of grease on the face. This includes the avoidance of so-called pancake-type makeup, which may contain oil, grease, or wax. Acne is caused by excessive oiliness. You may think your face is dry because of the flakes on it, but these are actually flakes of dried oil or the greasy scaling of seborrhea. Later, when the treatment begins to take effect, your skin will actually become dry, even to the point where it is chapped and tender, especially around the mouth and the sides of the chin. When this point is reached, you will be advised as to suitable corrective measures for this temporary dryness. If the skin becomes red and uncomfortable between office visits, the applied remedy may be discontinued for one or two nights.

Route ofExposure

However, another route of exposure seems to be much more relevant, namely percutaneous absorption16. Intensive contact to the skin is obvious, due to the wide spread occurrence ofmusk compounds in cosmetics, soaps, detergents and washed softened textiles. Toxicological studies in rats42-43-44 and in-vitro tests with guinea-pig and human skin45 demonstrated that relevant amounts may be absorbed following direct contact to the skin. The large inter-individual differences of contamination in human tissue shown in the present and in previous investigation46 further support this hypothesis (prevalent exposure by the diet would characteristically lead to only small variation). However, no studies are available at present proving the causal relationship between levels in the human body and levels in household and body care products. Thus further studies are needed to verify the role of dermal absorption inhumans16. Carcinogenicity, Genotoxicity In the only long-term animal study on...


The behavioral consequences of the foregoing problems can be quite significant. The increased difficulty in seeing objects in reduced light and greater susceptibility to glare can lead individuals to increasingly restrict their evening driving and walking. These changes in vision can also lead to increased accidents and falls resulting from failure to see hazardous objects, and diminished self-esteem resulting from such accidents and restrictions incurred from low vision. Changes in color perception can create difficulties in correctly matching clothing and facial makeup, and sometimes cause others to question the individual's aesthetic sensibilities (Whitbourne, 1998). These changes can also affect one's understanding of color-coded information and diminish one's appreciation of artwork, movies, and scenery. The diminished visual acuity can lead to difficulty reading, watching television, recognizing friends, and learning and remembering the distinctive features of the faces of new...


Logical makeup, transvestites as a group are no more neurotic or psychotic than matched control groups, although they do tend to be more controlled in impulse expression, more inhibited in interpersonal relationships, more dependent, and less involved with other people. More than three fourths of transvestites consider themselves to be a different personality when cross-dressed, perhaps experiencing in female clothing a significant facet of their psychological makeup that cannot otherwise be expressed.


Although the interactions that occur between neurons and either Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes produce the same outcome, that is, an axon ensheathed in myelin, myelination in the peripheral and central nervous systems differ in a number of ways (Colello & Pott, 1997). In particular, it has been estimated that a single oligodendrocyte can ensheath 20 to 50 axons with an internode of myelin, whereas, a single Schwann cell will ensheath only one axon with myelin. Consequently, the destruction of one oligo-dendrocyte will have a larger impact on motor or sensory function than the destruction of one Schwann cell. Moreover, it has been shown that myelin produced from oligo-dendrocytes and Schwann cells differs to some degree in its biochemical makeup of lipids and proteins (Snipes & Suter, 1995 Campagnoni, 1998). This may explain why some myelin diseases target preferentially either the central or peripheral nervous system. Regardless of differences, myelination in both systems can be...


Illusions are misperceptions of the environment. The essential notion of an illusion is that it leads the perceiver to misjudge the stimulus, to have a nonveridical perception. The Muller-Lyer illusion (Figure 1) is a visual illusion, probably the most studied of all visual illusions, in which the perceiver misjudges the length of lines. The lines are equal in length, yet the one on the left is judged to be approximately 25 longer than the other. The illusion has been used to illustrate the unreliability of the senses. Stage lighting, makeup, dress fashions our visual world is full of the practical application of illusionistic principles.


Natural Treatments For Onycholysis

Onycholysis is the distal or lateral separation of the nail plate from the nail bed. Probably psoriasis, fungal infection, and trauma (physical and chemical) from overly vigorous manicuring are among the more common causes. An allergic or irritant reaction to nail cosmetics may also be a culprit (see Fig.28-3A.).


In the EU sunscreen products are regulated by cosmetic legislation (Directive 76 768 EC) in the USA and Canada sunscreen products are considered as medical products and therefore have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration or the Canadian Ministry of Health as over-the-counter drugs. Medical products have to be proven for clinical efficacy, safety and quality, whereas cosmetics have only to be safe and they have to fulfil certain standards of quality. The list of EU-approved chemical filters and their maximal permissible concentration in commercial sunscreen products has been published in Annex VII of the European Cosmetic Directive. Directive 76 767 EC comprised 9 chemical filters for the short-wave UVB spectrum.

Pyknic Body Type

Pyknic Body Type

The physical makeup types distinguished by Kretschmer. Note. From K rperbau und Charakter Untersuchungen zum Konstitutionsproblem und zur Lehre von den Temperamenten Physique and Character Research concerning Problems of Constitution and Knowledge on Temperaments (17th-18th ed., pp. 18, 23, 27), by E. Kretschmer, 1944, Berlin, Germany Springer. Copyright 1944 by Springer Verlag. Reprinted with permission. Body Types and Temperaments. Taking these findings as a point of departure, Kretschmer put forward a hypothesis stating that in healthy, normal people there is also a relationship between the physical makeup and temperaments, including the inclination to psychiatric disorders. Normal people with a given type of physique have temperaments that are somewhat like the psychiatric disorders typical for their physical makeup. Kretschmer distinguished the following three types of temperament schizothymic, cyclothymic, and ixothymic. FIGURE 1.6. The distribution ofphysical makeup...

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