Mineralocorticoid Deficiency Causes Severe Renal Sodium Chloride Wasting and Hyperkalemia. Total loss of adrenocortical secretion usually causes death within 3 days to 2 weeks unless the person receives extensive salt therapy or injection of mineralocorticoids.

Without mineralocorticoids, potassium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid rises markedly, sodium and chloride are rapidly lost from the body, and the total extracellular fluid volume and blood volume become greatly reduced. The person soon develops diminished cardiac output, which progresses to a shocklike state, followed by death. This entire sequence can be prevented by the administration of aldosterone or some other mineralocorticoid. Therefore, the mineralocorticoids are said to be the acute "lifesaving" portion of the adrenocortical hormones. The glucocorticoids are equally necessary, however, allowing the person to resist the destructive effects of life's intermittent physical and mental "stresses," as discussed later in the chapter.

Aldosterone Is the Major Mineralocorticoid Secreted by the Adrenals. Aldosterone exerts nearly 90 per cent of the mineralocorticoid activity of the adrenocortical secretions, but cortisol, the major glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex, also provides a significant amount of mineralocorticoid activity. Aldosterone's mineralo-corticoid activity is about 3000 times greater than that of cortisol, but the plasma concentration of cortisol is nearly 2000 times that of aldosterone.

concentration stimulate thirst and increased water intake, if water is available. Therefore, the extracellular fluid volume increases almost as much as the retained sodium, but without much change in sodium concentration.

Even though aldosterone is one of the body's most powerful sodium-retaining hormones, only transient sodium retention occurs when excess amounts are secreted. An aldosterone-mediated increase in extracellular fluid volume lasting more than 1 to 2 days also leads to an increase in arterial pressure, as explained in Chapter 19. The rise in arterial pressure then increases kidney excretion of both salt and water, called pressure natriuresis and pressure diuresis, respectively. Thus, after the extracellular fluid volume increases 5 to 15 per cent above normal, arterial pressure also increases 15 to 25 mm Hg, and this elevated blood pressure returns the renal output of salt and water to normal despite the excess aldosterone (Figure 77-3).

This return to normal of salt and water excretion by the kidneys as a result of pressure natriuresis and

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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