Figure 4-5

A, Record of current flow through a single voltage-gated sodium channel, demonstrating the "all or none" principle for opening and closing of the channel. B, The "patch-clamp" method for recording current flow through a single protein channel. To the left, recording is performed from a "patch" of a living cell membrane. To the right, recording is from a membrane patch that has been torn away from the cell.

membrane. Note that the channel conducts current either "all or none." That is, the gate of the channel snaps open and then snaps closed, each open state lasting for only a fraction of a millisecond up to several milliseconds. This demonstrates the rapidity with

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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