The Eye: I. Optics of Vision 613

Physical Principles of Optics 613

Refraction of Light 613

Application of Refractive Principles to

Lenses 613

Focal Length of a Lens 615

Formation of an Image by a Convex Lens 616 Measurement of the Refractive Power of a

Lens—"Diopter" 616

Optics of the Eye 617

The Eye as a Camera 617

Mechanism of "Accommodation" 617

Pupillary Diameter 618

Errors of Refraction 619

Visual Acuity 621 Determination of Distance of an Object from the Eye—"Depth Perception" 621

Ophthalmoscope 622 Fluid System of the Eye—Intraocular

Fluid 623 Formation of Aqueous Humor by the Ciliary

Body 623

Outflow of Aqueous Humor from the Eye 623

Intraocular Pressure 624

CHAPTER 50 The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural

Function of the Retina 626 Anatomy and Function of the

Structural Elements of the Retina 626

Photochemistry of Vision 628 Rhodopsin-Retinal Visual Cycle, and

Excitation of the Rods 629 Automatic Regulation of Retinal Sensitivity—

Light and Dark Adaptation 631

Color Vision 632

Tricolor Mechanism of Color Detection 632

Color Blindness 633

Neural Function of the Retina 633

Neural Circuitry of the Retina 633

Ganglion Cells and Optic Nerve Fibers 636

Excitation of the Ganglion Cells 637

CHAPTER 51 The Eye: III. Central

Neurophysiology of Vision 640

Visual Pathways 640

Function of the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus 640

Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex 641

Layered Structure of the Primary Visual

Cortex 642

Two Major Pathways for Analysis of Visual Information—(1) The Fast "Position" and "Motion" Pathway; (2) The Accurate Color Pathway 643

Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of the Visual Image 643

Detection of Color 644

Effect of Removing the Primary Visual Cortex 644

Fields of Vision; Perimetry 644

Eye Movements and Their Control 645

Fixation Movements of the Eyes 645

"Fusion" of the Visual Images from the Two Eyes 647

Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture 648

Control of Accommodation (Focusing the

Eyes) 649

Control of Pupillary Diameter 649

CHAPTER 52 The Sense of Hearing 651

Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System 651

Conduction of Sound from the Tympanic

Membrane to the Cochlea 651

Transmission of Sound Through Bone 652

Cochlea 652

Functional Anatomy of the Cochlea 652 Transmission of Sound Waves in the

Cochlea—"Traveling Wave" 654

Function of the Organ of Corti 655 Determination of Sound Frequency—The

"Place" Principle 656

Determination of Loudness 656

Central Auditory Mechanisms 657

Auditory Nervous Pathways 657

Function of the Cerebral Cortex in Hearing 658 Determination of the Direction from Which

Sound Comes 660 Centrifugal Signals from the Central Nervous System to Lower Auditory

Centers 660

Hearing Abnormalities 660

Types of Deafness 660

CHAPTER 53 The Chemical Senses—Taste and

Smell 663

Sense of Taste 663

Primary Sensations of Taste 663

Taste Bud and Its Function 664 Transmission of Taste Signals into the

Central Nervous System 665

Taste Preference and Control of the Diet 666

Sense of Smell 667

Olfactory Membrane 667

Stimulation of the Olfactory Cells 667 Transmission of Smell Signals into the Central Nervous System

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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