To begin the process of carbon dioxide transport, carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissue cells in the dissolved molecular carbon dioxide form. On entering the tissue capillaries, the carbon dioxide initiates a host of almost instantaneous physical and chemical reactions, shown in Figure 40-13, which are essential for carbon dioxide transport.
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Dissolved State. A small portion of the carbon dioxide is transported in the dissolved state to the lungs. Recall that the Pco2 of venous blood is 45 mm Hg and that of arterial blood is 40 mm Hg. The amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the fluid of the blood at 45 mm Hg is about 2.7 ml/dl (2.7 volumes per cent). The amount dissolved at 40 mm Hg is about 2.4 milliliters, or a difference of 0.3 milliliter. Therefore, only about 0.3 milliliter of carbon dioxide is transported in the dissolved form by each 100 milliliters of blood flow. This is about 7 per cent of all the carbon dioxide normally transported.
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Form of Bicarbonate Ion Reaction of Carbon Dioxide with Water in the Red Blood Cells—Effect of Carbonic Anhydrase. The dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood reacts with water to form carbonic acid. This reaction would occur much too slowly to be of importance were it not for the fact that inside the red blood cells is a protein enzyme called carbonic anhydrase, which catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water and accelerates its reaction rate about 5000-fold. Therefore, instead of requiring many seconds or minutes to occur, as is true in the plasma, the reaction occurs so rapidly in the red blood cells that it reaches almost complete equilibrium within a very small fraction of a second. This allows tremendous amounts of carbon dioxide to react with the red blood cell water even before the blood leaves the tissue capillaries.
Dissociation of Carbonic Acid into Bicarbonate and Hydrogen Ions. In another fraction of a second, the carbonic acid formed in the red cells (H2CO3) dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions (H+ and HCO3). Most of the hydrogen ions then combine with the hemoglobin in the red blood cells, because the hemoglobin protein is a powerful acid-base buffer. In turn, many of the bicarbonate ions diffuse from the red cells into the plasma, while chloride ions diffuse into the red cells to take their place. This is made possible by the presence of a special bicarbonate-chloride carrier protein in the red cell membrane that shuttles these two ions in opposite directions at rapid velocities. Thus, the chloride content of venous red blood cells is greater than that of arterial red cells, a phenomenon called the chloride shift.
The reversible combination of carbon dioxide with water in the red blood cells under the influence of carbonic anhydrase accounts for about 70 per cent of the carbon dioxide transported from the tissues to the lungs. Thus, this means of transporting carbon dioxide is by far the most important. Indeed, when a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide) is administered to an animal to block the action of carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells, carbon dioxide transport from the tissues becomes so poor that the tissue Pco2 can be made to rise to 80mmHg instead of the normal 45 mm Hg.
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Combination with Hemoglobin and Plasma Proteins—Carbaminohemoglobin. In addition to reacting with water, carbon dioxide reacts directly with amine radicals of the hemoglobin molecule to form the compound carbaminohemoglobin (CO2Hgb). This combination of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin is a reversible reaction that occurs with a loose bond, so that the carbon dioxide is easily released into the alveoli, where the Pco2 is lower than in the pulmonary capillaries.
A small amount of carbon dioxide also reacts in the same way with the plasma proteins in the tissue capillaries. This is much less significant for the transport of carbon dioxide because the quantity of these proteins in the blood is only one fourth as great as the quantity of hemoglobin.
The quantity of carbon dioxide that can be carried from the peripheral tissues to the lungs by carbamino combination with hemoglobin and plasma proteins is about 30 per cent of the total quantity transported— that is, normally about 1.5 milliliters of carbon dioxide in each 100 milliliters of blood. However, because this reaction is much slower than the reaction of carbon dioxide with water inside the red blood cells, it is doubtful that under normal conditions this carbamino mechanism transports more than 20 per cent of the total carbon dioxide.
The curve shown in Figure 40-14—called the carbon dioxide dissociation curve—depicts the dependence of total blood carbon dioxide in all its forms on Pco2. Note that the normal blood Pco2 ranges between the limits of 40 mm Hg in arterial blood and 45 mm Hg in venous blood, which is a very narrow range. Note also that the normal concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood in all its different forms is about 50 volumes per cent, but only 4 volumes per cent of this is exchanged during normal transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. That is, the concentration rises to about 52 volumes per cent as the blood passes through the tissues and falls to about 48 volumes per cent as it passes through the lungs.
When Oxygen Binds with Hemoglobin, Carbon Dioxide Is Released (the Haldane Effect) to Increase CO2 Transport
Earlier in the chapter, it was pointed out that an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood causes oxygen to be displaced from the hemoglobin (the Bohr effect), which is an important factor in increasing oxygen transport. The reverse is also true: binding of oxygen with hemoglobin tends to displace carbon dioxide from the blood. Indeed, this effect, called the Haldane effect, is quantitatively far more important in
Carbon dioxide dissociation curve.
Gas pressure of carbon dioxide (mm Hg)
Gas pressure of carbon dioxide (mm Hg)
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.