When one states that cardiac output is controlled by venous return, this means that it is not the heart itself that is the primary controller of cardiac output.
Cardiac output is the quantity of blood pumped into the aorta each minute by the heart. This is also the quantity of blood that flows through the circulation. Cardiac output is perhaps the most important factor that we have to consider in relation to the circulation.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.