Depolarization of the Atria The P Wave

Depolarization of the atria begins in the sinus node and spreads in all directions over the atria. Therefore, the point of original electronegativity in the atria is about at the point of entry of the superior vena cava where the sinus node lies, and the direction of initial depolarization is denoted by the black vector in Figure 12-9. Furthermore, the vector remains generally in this direction throughout the process of normal atrial depolarization. Because this direction is generally in the positive directions of the axes of the three standard bipolar limb leads I, II, and III, the electrocardiograms recorded from the atria during depolarization are also usually positive in all three of these leads, as shown in Figure 12-9. This record of atrial depolarization is known as the atrial P wave.

Depolarization of the atria and generation of the P wave, showing the maximum vector through the atria and the resultant vectors in the three standard leads. At the right are the atrial P and T waves. SA, sinoatrial node.

Repolarization of the Atria—The Atrial T Wave. Spread of depolarization through the atrial muscle is much slower than in the ventricles because the atria have no Purkinje system for fast conduction of the depolarization signal. Therefore, the musculature around the sinus node becomes depolarized a long time before the musculature in distal parts of the atria. Because of this, the area in the atria that also becomes repolarized first is the sinus nodal region, the area that had originally become depolarized first. Thus, when repolarization begins, the region around the sinus node becomes positive with respect to the rest of the atria. Therefore, the atrial repolarization vector is backward to the vector of depolarization. (Note that this is opposite to the effect that occurs in the ventricles.) Therefore, as shown to the right in Figure 12-9, the so-called atrial T wave follows about 0.15 second after the atrial P wave, but this T wave is on the opposite side of the zero reference line from the P wave; that is, it is normally negative rather than positive in the three standard bipolar limb leads.

In the normal electrocardiogram, the atrial T wave appears at about the same time that the QRS complex of the ventricles appears. Therefore, it is almost always totally obscured by the large ventricular QRS complex, although in some very abnormal states, it does appear in the recorded electrocardiogram.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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