The myenteric plexus consists mostly of a linear chain of many interconnecting neurons that extends the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. A section of this chain is shown in Figure 62-4.
Because the myenteric plexus extends all the way along the intestinal wall and because it lies between the longitudinal and circular layers of intestinal smooth muscle, it is concerned mainly with controlling muscle activity along the length of the gut. When this plexus is stimulated, its principal effects are (1) increased tonic contraction, or "tone," of the gut wall,
(2) increased intensity of the rhythmical contractions,
(3) slightly increased rate of the rhythm of contraction, and (4) increased velocity of conduction of excitatory waves along the gut wall, causing more rapid movement of the gut peristaltic waves.
The myenteric plexus should not be considered entirely excitatory because some of its neurons are inhibitory; their fiber endings secrete an inhibitory transmitter, possibly vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or some other inhibitory peptide. The resulting inhibitory signals are especially useful for inhibiting some of the intestinal sphincter muscles that impede movement of food along successive segments of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the pyloric sphincter, which controls emptying of the stomach into the duodenum, and the sphincter of the ileocecal valve, which controls emptying from the small intestine into the cecum.
The submucosal plexus, in contrast to the myenteric plexus, is mainly concerned with controlling function within the inner wall of each minute segment of the intestine. For instance, many sensory signals originate from the gastrointestinal epithelium and are then integrated in the submucosal plexus to help control local intestinal secretion, local absorption, and local contraction of the submucosal muscle that causes various degrees of infolding of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.