Electrocardiogram During Repolarization The T Wave

After the ventricular muscle has become depolarized, about 0.15 second later, repolarization begins and

Shaded areas of the ventricles are depolarized (-); nonshaded areas are still polarized (+). The ventricular vectors and QRS complexes 0.01 second after onset of ventricular depolarization (A); 0.02 second after onset of depolarization (B); 0.035 second after onset of depolarization (C); 0.05 second after onset of depolarization (D); and after depolarization of the ventricles is complete, 0.06 second after onset (E).

The Wave Depolarization Begins The

Shaded areas of the ventricles are depolarized (-); nonshaded areas are still polarized (+). The ventricular vectors and QRS complexes 0.01 second after onset of ventricular depolarization (A); 0.02 second after onset of depolarization (B); 0.035 second after onset of depolarization (C); 0.05 second after onset of depolarization (D); and after depolarization of the ventricles is complete, 0.06 second after onset (E).

proceeds until complete at about 0.35 second.This repolarization causes the T wave in the electrocardiogram.

Because the septum and endocardial areas of the ventricular muscle depolarize first, it seems logical that these areas should repolarize first as well. However, this is not the usual case because the septum and other endocardial areas have a longer period of contraction than most of the external surfaces of the heart. Therefore, the greatest portion of ventricular muscle mass to repolarize first is the entire outer surface of the ventricles, especially near the apex of the heart. The endocardial areas, conversely, normally repolarize last. This sequence of repolarization is postulated to be caused by the high blood pressure inside the ventricles during contraction, which greatly reduces coronary blood flow to the endocardium, thereby slowing repolariza-tion in the endocardial areas.

Because the outer apical surfaces of the ventricles repolarize before the inner surfaces, the positive end of the overall ventricular vector during repolarization is toward the apex of the heart. As a result, the normal T wave in all three bipolar limb leads is positive, which is also the polarity of most of the normal QRS complex.

In Figure 12-8, five stages of repolarization of the ventricles are denoted by progressive increase of the white areas—the repolarized areas. At each stage, the vector extends from the base of the heart toward the apex until it disappears in the last stage. At first, the vector is relatively small because the area of repolarization is small. Later, the vector becomes

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Responses

  • vigo sackville
    Why apex of heart is repolarized first?
    3 years ago

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