Both the increased rate of gluconeogenesis and the moderate reduction in the rate of glucose utilization by the cells cause the blood glucose concentrations to rise. The rise in blood glucose in turn stimulates secretion of insulin. The increased plasma levels of insulin, however, are not as effective in maintaining plasma glucose as they are under normal conditions. For reasons that are not entirely clear, high levels of glucocorticoid reduce the sensitivity of many tissues, especially skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, to the stimulatory effects of insulin on glucose uptake and utilization. One possible explanation is that high levels of fatty acids, caused by the effect of glucocor-ticoids to mobilize lipids from fat depots, may impair insulin's actions on the tissues. In this way, excess secretion of glucocorticoids may produce disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism very similar to those found in patients with excess levels of growth hormone.
The increase in blood glucose concentration is occasionally great enough (50 per cent or more above normal) that the condition is called adrenal diabetes. Administration of insulin lowers the blood glucose concentration only a moderate amount in adrenal diabetes-not nearly as much as it does in pancreatic diabetes-because the tissues are resistant to the effects of insulin.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...