Expired air is a combination of dead space air and alveolar air; its overall composition is therefore determined by (1) the amount of the expired air that is dead space air and (2) the amount that is alveolar air. Figure 39-6 shows the progressive changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in the expired air during the course of expiration. The first portion of this air, the dead space air from the respiratory passageways, is typical humidified air, as shown in Table 39-1.Then,pro-gressively more and more alveolar air becomes mixed with the dead space air until all the dead space air has finally been washed out and nothing but alveolar air is expired at the end of expiration. Therefore, the method of collecting alveolar air for study is simply to collect a sample of the last portion of the expired air after forceful expiration has removed all the dead space air.

Normal expired air, containing both dead space air and alveolar air, has gas concentrations and partial pressures approximately as shown in Table 39-1—that is, concentrations between those of alveolar air and humidified atmospheric air.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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