Physiology Aminostatic Theories

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Fabricius, bursa of, 440. See also

Lymphocyte(s), B. Face, trigeminal neuralgia of, 605-606 Face recognition, 717-718,717f, 718f Facilitation neuronal, 568, 579, 579f synaptic, 557 memory and, 724-725,724f Factor I (fibrinogen), 188, 459f, 459t, 460 Factor II (prothrombin), 459-460, 459f, 459t Factor III (tissue factor), 459t, 461, 461f Factor IV. See Calcium. Factor V (proaccelerin), 459t Factor VII (serum prothrombin conversion accelerator), 459t Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor), 459t, 465

Factor IX (plasma thromboplastin component), 459t, 462f, 463 Factor X (Stuart factor), 459t, 461f, 462,

462f, 463 Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent), 459t, 462f, 463 Factor XII (Hageman factor), 459t Factor XIII (fibrin-stabilizing factor), 459t,

460 Fainting, 208

Fallopian tubes, 1011, 1012f estrogen effects on, 1017 inflammation of, 1025 ovum in, 1027,1028-1029,1028f progesterone effects on, 1018 Fallot, tetralogy of, 139, 275-276, 275f Familial hypercholesterolemia, 850

Fanconi's syndrome, 414 Farsightedness, 619, 619f Fastigial nucleus, 701, 701f Fat(s). See also Lipid(s);Triglycerides. brown, 887-888,896 carbohydrate formation from, 838 depletion of, 874-875, 874f deposition of, estrogen and, 1018 digestion of, 811-812,811f, 812f emulsification of, 811

energy content of, 865-866, 866t, 966, 966f extracellular, 46f, 294f formation of, 837-838,842, 844-845, 845f hydrolysis of, 808

in gallbladder emptying, 803-804

intestinal absorption of, 816

intracellular, 46f metabolism of. See also at Triglycerides. bile salts and, 804-805 carbohydrate lack and, 846 cortisol and, 846, 952 growth hormone and, 846, 922-923 in diabetes mellitus type I, 973-974 insulin and, 965-966, 969-970 liver in, 842,844, 861-862 regulation of, 846 thyroid hormone and, 846, 936 neutral, 12f, 46f, 294f, 850. See also

Lipid(s). protein-sparing activity of, 866 storage of, 842, 845. See also Adipose tissue. insulin and, 965 tissue. See Adipose tissue. Fat cells (adipocytes), 12, 842. See also

Adipose tissue. Fatigue neuromuscular junction, 88 skeletal muscle, 82 synaptic, 570 Fatty acids, 840. See also Triglycerides. acetyl-CoA conversion to, 844-845, 845f beta-oxidation of, 842-843, 843f blood transport of, 841 direct absorption of, 816 epinephrine effect on, 970 extracellular, 4 free, 841

glucose conversion to, 964-965 a-glycerophosphate combination with,

845,845f insulin and, 965

intracellular, 22, 22f. See also Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). plasma, 841 transport of, 841 Fatty streak, 849 Feces colonic movements of, 788-789, 788f composition of, 817

expulsion of, 757,789-790,790f, 822, 823 formation of, 817 water in, 292, 292t Feedback negative, 7, 8f positive, 8-9, 8f Feedback gain, in arterial pressure regulation, 217-218 Feed-forward control, 9 Feeding. See also Food.

abnormal, 872-873. See also Obesity. adipose tissue feedback in, 871 aminostatic theory of, 871 brain stem function in, 870 cholecystokinin and, 870 environmental temperature and, 871

Feeding (Continued) excess, 872-874 gastrointestinal factors in, 870 ghrelin and, 870 glucostatic theory of, 871 hypothalamic regulation of, 733f, 734, 867-870, 868f, 869f, 869t, 871-872 inhibition of, 868-870, 869f, 870 insulin and, 870 lipostatic theory of, 871 long-term regulation of, 871-872 mechanics of, 781-784,782f, 870 neural regulation of, 733f, 734, 867-870,

868f, 869f, 869t neurotransmitters in, 868-870, 869f, 869t oral receptors in,871 peptide YY and, 870 quantity of, 870-872 short-term regulation of, 870-871 stimulation of, 868-870, 869f thermogenic effect of, 887 Femoral vein, thrombosis of, 466 Fenestrae, of glomerular capillary membrane, 316, 316f Ferritin, 425, 425f, 862 Fertility, 1024-1025 Fertilization, 1000,1027-1029,1028f Fetal cells, in Parkinson's disease, 711 Fetus, 1042-1044. See also Neonate; Newborn. calcium metabolism in, 1043,1043f circulation of, 1042, 1045, 1046f erythroblastosis of, 421f, 427, 454,1048 gastrointestinal tract of, 1043 growth of, 1042, 1043f iron metabolism in, 1043-1044, 1043f kidneys of, 1043 metabolism in, 1043 nervous system of, 1043 phosphate metabolism in, 1043,1043f red blood cells of, 1042 respiratory system of, 1042-1043 sex of, 1028 vitamins in, 1044 Fever, 898-900, 898f brain lesions and, 899 interleukin-1 in, 898-899 metabolic rate and, 887 rheumatic, 271 Fibrin, 459f, 460

antithrombin action of, 463-464 formation of, 460 in platelet plug formation, 458 Fibrinogen (factor I), 459f, 459t, 460,

855-857, 855f. See also Plasma proteins. osmotic pressure and, 188 Fibrinolysin, 1019

Fibrin-stabilizing factor (factor XIII), 458,

459t, 460 Fibroblast growth factor, 200 Fight or flight reaction, 758 Filaments actin of cardiac muscle, 103 of skeletal muscle, 72-73, 76-78,76f of smooth muscle, 93-94, 93f cellular, 17,17f myosin of cardiac muscle, 103 of skeletal muscle, 72-73, 73f, 75-78, 75f of smooth muscle, 93-94, 93f proteoglycan, 184-185,184f, 305 Filtration coefficient, 185-186, 190, 340, 341t Filtration fraction, 316, 319, 319f, 340, 346 Fitness. See Exercise. Flagellum, of sperm, 17,17f, 25

Flatus, 817,825

Flexor reflex, 680-681, 680f, 681f Flowmeter Doppler, 164-165,165f electromagnetic, 164, 165f, 243, 243f Fluid(s)

body. See Blood;Body fluids; Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Extracellular fluid;Interstitial fluid; Intracellular fluid;Pleural fluid; Urine;Water. dialyzing, 415,415t transcellular, 293. See also Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF). Fluorine, 879, 994 9a-Fluorocortisol, 945,947t Fluorosis, 879 Flush, 899, 899f Foam cells, 849 Focal epilepsy, 744-745 Focal length, 614f, 615 Focal line, 614, 615 Focal point, 614-615,614f Focus, depth of, 618-619, 618f Folic acid, 875t, 877 deficiency of, 423 in red blood cell maturation, 423 Follicle-stimulating hormone, 907t, 918, 919f, 920t in female reproduction, 1011, 1012-1013, 1013f in male reproduction, 999, 1007 testosterone inhibition of, 1007 Food. See also Carbohydrates;Fat(s); Protein(s), dietary. appetite for, 781 chewing of, 781-782 colonic mixing of, 788-789 digestion of, 808-817. See also Digestion;

Gastrointestinal tract. energy in, 865-866, 866t free energy of oxidation of, 829 gas-forming, 825 gastric mixing of, 784 gastric peristalsis of, 785-786 hunger for, 733f, 734,781,785,867 intake of, 781-784, 782f, 867-872. See also Feeding.

intestinal mixing of, 786-787, 787f peristalsis of, 787-788 storage of in colon, 788-789, 788f in stomach, 784, 784f swallowing of, 782-784, 782f taste of. See Taste sensation. thermogenic effect of, 887 volume of, stomach emptying and, 785 Foramen ovale, 1045, 1046f closure of, 1046 Forced expiratory vital capacity, 526, 526f Forced expiratory volume during first second (FEVj), 526,526f Fourth power law, 168 Fourth ventricle, 763, 764, 764f Fovea, 626,627f, 635, 635f, 636 Fracture, 683, 983

Frank-Starling mechanism, 111-113,112f,

113f, 233 Free energy, 829 Free-water clearance, 357 Freon gas, in submarine, 550 Fröhlich's syndrome, 1009,1009f Frostbite, 900

Fructose, intestinal absorption of, 816 Functional residual capacity, 475, 476-477, 476f, 494, 529

Functional residual capacity (Continued)

in asthma, 529 Furosemide, 403, 403t

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Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

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