Figure 4010

Shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right caused by an increase in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease in pH). BPG, 2,3-biphosphoglycerate.

average, about 15 per cent to the right. Conversely, an increase in pH from the normal 7.4 to 7.6 shifts the curve a similar amount to the left.

In addition to pH changes, several other factors are known to shift the curve. Three of these, all of which shift the curve to the right, are (1) increased carbon dioxide concentration, (2) increased blood temperature, and (3) increased 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG), a metabolically important phosphate compound present in the blood in different concentrations under different metabolic conditions.

Increased Delivery of Oxygen to the Tissues When Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Ions Shift the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve—The Bohr Effect. A shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right in response to increases in blood carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions has a significant effect by enhancing the release of oxygen from the blood in the tissues and enhancing oxygenation of the blood in the lungs. This is called the Bohr effect, which can be explained as follows: As the blood passes through the tissues, carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissue cells into the blood. This increases the blood Po2, which in turn raises the blood H2CO3 (carbonic acid) and the hydrogen ion concentration. These effects shift the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right and downward, as shown in Figure 40-10, forcing oxygen away from the hemoglobin and therefore delivering increased amounts of oxygen to the tissues.

Exactly the opposite effects occur in the lungs, where carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli. This reduces the blood Pco2 and decreases the hydrogen ion concentration, shifting the

Shift of the Dissociation Curve During Exercise. During exercise, several factors shift the dissociation curve considerably to the right, thus delivering extra amounts of oxygen to the active, exercising muscle fibers. The exercising muscles, in turn, release large quantities of carbon dioxide; this and several other acids released by the muscles increase the hydrogen ion concentration in the muscle capillary blood. In addition, the temperature of the muscle often rises 2° to 3°C, which can increase oxygen delivery to the muscle fibers even more. All these factors act together to shift the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve of the muscle capillary blood considerably to the right. This right-hand shift of the curve forces oxygen to be released from the blood hemoglobin to the muscle at Po2 levels as great as 40 mm Hg, even when 70 per cent of the oxygen has already been removed from the hemoglobin. Then, in the lungs, the shift occurs in the opposite direction, allowing the pickup of extra amounts of oxygen from the alveoli.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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