Autonomic control areas in the brain stem and hypothalamus.
Yet there is often association between closely allied parasympathetic functions. For instance, although salivary secretion can occur independently of gastric secretion, these two also often occur together, and pancreatic secretion frequently occurs at the same time. Also, the rectal emptying reflex often initiates a urinary bladder emptying reflex, resulting in simultaneous emptying of both the bladder and the rectum. Conversely, the bladder emptying reflex can help initiate rectal emptying.
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