Blood normally flows continually from the great veins into the atria; about 80 per cent of the blood flows directly through the atria into the ventricles even before the atria contract. Then, atrial contraction usually causes an additional 20 per cent filling of the ventricles. Therefore, the atria simply function as primer pumps that increase the ventricular pumping effectiveness as much as 20 per cent. However, the heart can continue to operate under most conditions even without this extra 20 per cent effectiveness because it normally has the capability of pumping 300 to 400 per cent more blood than is required by the resting body. Therefore, when the atria fail to function, the difference is unlikely to be noticed unless a person exercises; then acute signs of heart failure occasionally develop, especially shortness of breath.
Pressure Changes in the Atria—The a, c, and v Waves. In the atrial pressure curve of Figure 9-5, three minor pressure elevations, called the a, c, and v atrial pressure waves, are noted.
The a wave is caused by atrial contraction. Ordinarily, the right atrial pressure increases 4 to 6 mm Hg during atrial contraction, and the left atrial pressure increases about 7 to 8 mm Hg.
The c wave occurs when the ventricles begin to contract; it is caused partly by slight backflow of blood into the atria at the onset of ventricular contraction but mainly by bulging of the A-V valves backward toward the atria because of increasing pressure in the ventricles.
The v wave occurs toward the end of ventricular contraction; it results from slow flow of blood into the atria from the veins while the A-V valves are closed during ventricular contraction. Then, when ventricular contraction is over, the A-V valves open, allowing this stored atrial blood to flow rapidly into the ventricles and causing the v wave to disappear.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.